Khilafah / الفتاوى العطائية (al-Fatawa al-'Ata'iyya)

The Obligation of Appointing a Khalifah Part 1

Shaykh `Ata’:

“Evidence for Establishing a Sultan (Caliph): Part 1”

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  • The noble scholar shaykh `Ata’ Ibn Khalil states:

[3]وفي حالة عدم وجود السلطان الذي يحكم بشرع الله فإن الواجب على المسلمين هو العمل الجاد المجد لإيجاد السلطان الذي يحكم بالإسلام لأنه فرض للنصوص الكثيرة الواردة في ذلك من الكتاب والسنة وإجماع الصحابة:

أما الكتاب فقد قـال تعالى مخاطباً الرسـول عليه الصـلاة والسـلام: ﴿فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ عَمَّا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْحَقِّ﴾، وقوله: ﴿وَأَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ وَاحْذَرْهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنُوكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْك﴾، وخطاب الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم بالحكم بينهم بما أنزل الله هو خطاب لأمته صلوات الله وسلامه عليه، ومفهومه أن يوجِدوا حاكماً بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يحكم بينهم بما أنزل الله، والأمر في الخطاب يفيد الجزم؛ لأن موضوع الخطاب فرض، وهذا قرينة على الجزم كما في الأصول، والحاكم الذي يحكم بين المسلمين بما أنزل الله بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم هو الخليفة. ونظام الحكم على هذا الوجه هو نظام الخـلافة. هذا فضلاً عن أن إقامة الحدود وسائر الأحكام واجبة، وهذه لا تقام إلا بالحاكم، وما لا يتم الواجب إلا به فهو واجب، أي أن إيجاد الحاكم الذي يقيم الشرع هو واجب. والحاكم على هذا الوجه هو الخليفة، ونظام الحكم هو نظام الخـلافة

Translation:

[3] In the event of the non-existence of a sultan that rules by the shariah of Allah, it becomes mandatory on Muslims to expend utmost effort to bring about the existence of this sultan who will rule by the shariah of Allah because of the numerous texts that establish the obligation of doing so from the Kitab, Sunnah and consensus of the Sahaba:

As for the Book, Allah (Most High) said addressing His Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace): {and rule them with what Allah has revealed and do not follow their vain desires from the Truth that has come to you}. And {and rule them with what Allah has revealed and do not follow their desires; be aware of them lest they lead you away from some of that which Allah has revealed to you}.[1] An address to the Messenger (Allah bless him and grant him peace) to implement and rule by what Allah has revealed is an address to his nation (ummah) to do the same. What is understood is that they establish a ruler (hakiman) after the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) that rules and judges between them with all that Allah had revealed. The imperative (order) in the address is definitive (al-jazm) because the subject matter of the address (mawdu` al-khitab) is an obligation (fard); hence the contextual indication (qarinah) is decisive in its purport as is understood from the science of Usul [al-Fiqh].[2] And the ruler (hakiman) after the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) that rules and judges between them with all that Allah had revealed is the Khalifah.[3] The system in this respect is the Khilafah system. The implementation of the Islamic criminal sanctions (hudud) or indeed all laws are mandatory, but this cannot be implemented except by a ruler. So, according to the principle “whatever an obligation requires, that thing itself becomes an obligation”[4] implies that the presence of a ruler that implements the laws of Allah is mandatory. The ruler in this respect is the Khalifah and the system the Khilafah system.”[5]

Part two…

s.z.c.


[1] Q. 5:48-50

[2] For details on indications (qara’in) and their types and examples, refer to Ibn Khalil, Taysir al-Wusul ila’l-Usul, pp.19-29.

[3] الخليفة : The term khalifah or its synonyms “Imam”, “sultan” and “amir” is defined by al-Jurjani as: “The one who possesses the supreme leadership over all matters related to the temporal as well as the religious (huwa alladhi lahu riyasah al-`ammah fi ’l-din wa ’l-dunya jami`an),” Kitab al-Tarifat with additional entries, s.v., p.45.

هو الذي له رياسة العامة في الدين والدنيا جميعا…

For the role and conditions of the khalifah see Imam Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani: al-Dawlah al-Islamiyyah, pp.120-122; idem, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, vol.2, pp.31-37; idem, Nizam al-Hukm fi ’l-Islam pp.49-50; idem, Nizam al-Islam, pp.94-99; al-Nawawi’s Rawdah ’l-Talibin, pp.1715-1718 and Hashiyah al-Bujayrimi: Sharh Minhaj al-Tullab, vol.4, pp.98-101.

[4] Ibid., pp.43-44.

[5] “Q & A: Implementing the Hudud in a Land”.

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