الفتاوى العطائية (al-Fatawa al-'Ata'iyya)

Q&A: “Working as a Policeman…”

Q&A: “Working as a Policeman for the Authorities”

'Stay on the right!'

‘Stay on the right!’

***

The noble faqih and mujtahid Shaykh `Ata’ Ibn Khalil (Allah protect him) writes in response:

السؤال:
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته

عندي سؤال أخي أنا أسكن في مدينة خليل الرحمن والكل يعلم بأننا قد ابتُلينا في هذه السلطة، سلطة الضرار وواقعها معروف. سؤالي من شقين:

الأول: هل جميع من ينتسب إلى أجهزتها آثم، أي لا يجوز، بمن فيهم شرطي السير.

الثاني: ما حكم من يعمل عندهم (في مقراتهم) من أصحاب الحرف كالبناء والبليط والقصير…الخ
والسلام عليكم ورحمة الله تعالى وبركاته.

Question:

al-salamu `alaykuk wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

My dear brother, I have a question. I live in Hebron and everyone knows how we are afflicted with suffering by this authority and how dangerous and damaging it is and its reality is well-known. My question has two aspects: One: is everyone who is associated with its departments a sinner i.e. unlawful, to be a traffic policeman for their authorities? Two: what is the ruling for he who works for them (in their headquarters) as a craftsman, artisan or workman as well as a construction worker or a tile worker, etc…peace and blessings of Allah Most high be with you.

Answer:

الجواب:

وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته

بالنسبة للعمل شرطياً عند السلطة…

أخرج أبو يعلى في مسنده وابن حبان في صحيحه، واللفظ لأبي يعلى: عن عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ، وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ قَالَا: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَيَأْتِيَنَّ عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ يَكُونُ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَرَاءُ سُفَهَاءُ يُقَدِّمُونَ شِرَارَ النَّاسِ، وَيَظْهَرُونَ بِخِيَارِهِمْ، وَيُؤَخِّرُونَ الصَّلَاةَ عَنْ مَوَاقِيتِهَا، فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ ذَلِكَ مِنْكُمْ، فَلَا يَكُونَنَّ عَرِيفًا وَلَا شُرْطِيًّا وَلَا جَابِيًا وَلَا خَازِنًا». هذا الحديث ينهى الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم فيه عن هذه الأربعة تحت حكم الأمراء السفهاء بشكل مطلق.

ولكن أخرج الطبراني في الصغير والأوسط عن أبي هريرة الرواية التالية: «فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ مِنْكُمْ ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانَ فَلَا يَكُونَنَّ لَهُمْ جَابِيًا، وَلَا عَرِيفًا، وَلَا شُرْطِيًّا«، فقال: «فَلَا يَكُونَنَّ لَهُمْ»، أي أن النهي مقيَّد لأن اللام للاختصاص، وهذا يعني أن النهي في الحديث الثاني متعلق بالعمل لهؤلاء الحكام مثل الحرس الخاص بهم، والدوائر الأمنية الخاصة بحمايتهم، وكذلك الخازن لأموالهم ونحو ذلك من الدوائر الأمنية الخاصة بالحكام…

ولأن القواعد الأصولية تنص على حمل المطلق على المقيد، فإذن يكون النهي متعلقاً بالعمل في أجهزة الشرطة الخاصة بحماية الحكام وأمنهم… كالحرس الخاص لرئيس السلطة وأعوانه، وخزنة أموالهم، وشرطة أمن الدولة ونحو ذلك.

وأما أجهزة الشرطة الأخرى العادية فيجوز. وبطبيعة الحال فالجواز لا يعني ظلم الناس أو أكل حقوقهم، بل تحري الحق في العمل، وهذا ليس فقط في أجهزة الشرطة بل في كل دائرة… ولذلك فشرطي السير وأمثاله جائز عمله.

أما الأعمال الأخرى كأن يكون أجيراً عندهم في البناء والتبليط والقصارة، فجائز لأن عقد الإجارة جائز مع المسلم وغير المسلم في الأعمال المباحة إلا في حالة الحرب الفعلية، فلها أحكامها الشرعية الخاصة. أخرج ابن ماجه عَنْ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ «أَصَابَ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَصَاصَةٌ فَبَلَغَ ذَلِكَ عَلِيًّا فَخَرَجَ يَلْتَمِسُ عَمَلًا يُصِيبُ فِيهِ شَيْئًا لِيُقِيتَ بِهِ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَأَتَى بُسْتَانًا لِرَجُلٍ مِنْ الْيَهُودِ فَاسْتَقَى لَهُ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ دَلْوًا كُلُّ دَلْوٍ بِتَمْرَةٍ فَخَيَّرَهُ الْيَهُودِيُّ مِنْ تَمْرِهِ سَبْعَ عَشَرَةَ عَجْوَةً فَجَاءَ بِهَا إِلَى نَبِيِّ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ»، وأخرج نحوه الترمذي، وهو دليل على جواز الإجارة في الأعمال المباحة مع المسلم غير الملتزم ما دام يجوز مع غير المسلم. فالإجارة جائزة عند السلطة في الأعمال المباحة.

أخوكم عطاء بن خليل أبو الرشتة

Response:

Wa `alaykum al-salam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.

As regards working as a policeman for the authorities: Abu Ya`la reports a hadith in his Musnad[1] as well as Ibn Hibban in his Sahih[2] and the wording is Abu Ya`la’s that: Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah both said that: the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: ‘A time will come when you will have idiotic and despotic rulers over you putting forward the most evil of people and follow them in their choices and they will delay the Prayer from its fixed times. So if you are in that time, then do not be a corporal, a policeman, a tax collector or treasurer…’ The hadith mentions the unrestricted prohibition by the Messenger of Allah for being any of these persons when the ruler is idiotic and despotic. However, al-Tabarani in his [al-Mu`jam] al-Saghir[3] and al-Awsat[4] the following narration from Abu Hurayrah: ‘Whoever is present at that time, then let him not be a tax collector, treasurer or policeman for them’. He said: <فَلَا يَكُونَنَّ لَهُمْ> (‘and do not be for them’) which is a restricted prohibition due the letter ‘lam/اللام’ denoting ‘specification’ (lam li’l-ikhtisas). What this means is that the prohibition relates to working for those specific rulers, e.g. specifically protecting them, or working as a private security service for them as well as a treasurer for them or any other such security services. The principle in Usul [al-Fiqh] is that the unrestricted (mutlaq) is taken as the restricted (muqayyad). Therefore, the prohibition refers to working as an officer or policeman that involves security and protection of the rulers like guarding the president and his aides, treasurer to his wealth or a policeman for the state and such jobs.

            As for other general police professions, then this is permitted provided of course that does not involve oppressing others or taking their rights but investigating the rights of work. This is not only the case for the police department but for every department. Therefore, it is permitted to work as a traffic policeman [s: or officer].

Regarding other kinds of work such as being employed as a tiler, builder, bleacher or fuller, then these are permitted. A contract of employment/hire (ijarah) is permitted whether for a Muslim or non-Muslim as long as the work is permitted in origin unless there is an actual state of war going on [s: with Muslims] because such a situation has very different legal rulings. Ibn Majah relates from Ibn `Abbas that: “The Prophet was in need of food and news of that reached `Ali. He went out seeking work so that he could earn something to give to the Messenger of Allah. He came to a garden belonging to a Jewish man and he drew seventeen buckets of water for him, each bucket for a date. The Jew gave him the option to take seventeen of his `ajwah dates (a high quality of dates) and he brought them to the Prophet of Allah.”[5] al-Tirmidhi also narrated something similar and it is a proof that it is permissible seek work from a non-Muslim as long as the work is not impermissible. Thus, working for the authorities in a permissible job is allowed.

Your brother, `Ata’ Ibn Khalil Abu Rashtah.

[End].

Notes:

  1. The meaning of ‘`arif/corporal’: the person who informs the Khalifah or ruler about the affairs of the army or soldiers.[6]
  2. The meaning of ‘shurti/policeman’: he who protects the Khalifah or ruler or any authority in the Islamic state.
  3. The meaning of ‘jabiy/tax collector’: the state tax collector or zakat collector.[7]
  4. The meaning of ‘khazin/treasurer’: the one who protects the state wealth or money.[8]

s.z.c.


[1] Abu Ya`la, al-Musnad (no.1115) and cf. The ‘Kitab al-Khilafah wa’l-Imarah’ in the Zawa’id of Abu Ya`la’s Musnad entitled al-Maqsid `al-Ali (no.779). Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arna’ut declares the hadith to be ‘weak’ (da`if) although Shaykh al-Albani declared it ‘authenticated’ (sahih) in Silsilat Ahadith al-Sahihah (no.360). al-Haythami in al-Majma` al-Zawa’id, 5:240 states all the transmitters to be those of the sahih (authentic) category except `Abd al-Rahman Ibn Mas`ud who is upright (thiqqah). The narration is hasan. And Allah knows best.

[2] Ibn Hibban, Sahih (no.4586).

[3] al-Tabarani, al-Mu`jam al-Saghir (no.564).

[4] al-Tabarani, al-Mu`jam al-Awsat (no.4190). The full text is:

يَكُونُ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ أُمَرَاءُ ظَلَمَةً، وَوُزَرَاءُ فَسَقَةً، وَقَضَاةٌ خَوَنَةٌ، وَفُقَهَاءُ كَذَبَةٌ، فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ مِنْكُمْ ذَلِكَ الزَّمَانَ فَلَا يَكُونَنَّ لَهُمْ جَابِيًا، وَلَا عَرِيفًا، وَلَا شُرْطِيًّا

[5] Ibn Majah, Sunan (no.2439).

[6] `Azim Abadi, `Awn al-Ma`bud, 10:108: “He is in charge of the affairs of groups of people and informs the the Amir of their condition…”

هُوَ الْقَيِّمُ بِأُمُورِ الْقَبِيلَةِ أَوِ الْجَمَاعَةِ مِنَ النَّاسِ، يَلِي أُمُورَهُمْ وَيَتَعَرَّفُ الْأَمِيرُ مِنْهُ أَحْوَالَهُمْ

al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar states in Fath al-Bari, 6:601: “He is called an ‘`arif‘ because he informs the Imam about the condition of the army…”

وسمي العريف عريفا لأنه يعرّف الإمام أحوال العسكر

وسمي بذلك لكونه يتعرف أمورهم ، حتى يعرف بها من فوقه عند الاحتياج

[7] See Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Majmu` al-Fatawa, 14:92 and Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, 7:317.

[8] See al-`Ayni, Sharh Abi Dawud, 6:436:

وقوله : ( ولا خازنا ) الخازن هو الذي يُخزن عنده المال ، أي : يُحفظ

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