الفتاوى العطائية (al-Fatawa al-'Ata'iyya)

Q&A Friday Prayer without the Sultan

Q & A: “Friday Prayer without the Sultan”

Shaykh `Ata’ Ibn Khalil[1]

Questions:

السؤال:
في نقاش مع أحد الأشخاص، وهو يصلي الأوقات… لكنه لا يصلي الجمعة مع الناس، بل يصليها ظهراً، فلما أنكرت عليه ذلك قال إن وجود الخليفة شرط في صحة صلاة الجمعة، فهل يقول بهذا أحد من الفقهاء؟ وما هو رأي الحزب في ذلك؟ وجزاكم الله خيراً.

“In [our] discussion with someone, there is a person who prays on time but does not pray the Friday Prayer (jumu`ah) with the people. Instead, he prays the Afternoon (zuhr) Prayer. When I objected to what he was doing he replied that one of the conditions of validity for the Prayer is the existence of the Khalifah. Did any of the jurists hold such an opinion? What is the Party’s view on this?  May Allah reward you with good”

Answer:

الجواب:

إن صلاة الجمعة فرض سواء أوُجِد الخليفة أم لم يوجد، والأدلة على ذلك مشهورة، ومنها:

قوله سبحانه: (( يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِنْ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَى ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ)) وأخرج الحاكم في مستدركه عن أبي موسى، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: «الجمعة حق واجب على كل مسلم في جماعة إلا أربعة: عبد مملوك، أو امرأة، أو صبي، أو مريض» وقال الحاكم: “هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه”. وكذلك أخرج النسائي عن عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ عَنْ حَفْصَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: “رَوَاحُ الْجُمُعَةِ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى كُلِّ مُحْتَلِمٍ”.وواضح من هذه الأدلة عدم تقييدها بالإمام (الخليفة)

وبهذا يقول كذلك أصحاب المذاهب الثلاثة (مالك والشافعي وابن حنبل)، وأما الأحناف فقد ذكروا من شروط الجمعة:
(إذن السّلطان بذلك، أو حضوره، أو حضور نائب رسميّ عنه، إذ هكذا كان شأنها على عهد رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم وفي عهود الخلفاء الرّاشدين. هذا إذا كان ثمّة إمام أو نائب عنه في البلدة الّتي تقام فيها الجمعة، فإذا لم يوجد أحدهما، لموت أو فتنة أو ما شابه ذلك، وحضر وقت الجمعة كان للنّاس حينئذ أن يجتمعوا على رجل منهم ليتقدّمهم فيصلّي بهم الجمعة.) وشرط إذن السلطان هو رأي مرجوح عندنا للأدلة السابقة.

والخلاصة أن صلاة الجمعة فرض، سواء أكان الخليفة موجوداً أم لم يكن هناك خليفة

“The Friday Prayer is obligatory regardless of whether there is a khalifah or not. The evidences for this are well known such as Allah’s statement: {O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu`ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew}”[2] And al-Hakim has in his Mustadrak on the authority of Abu Musa from the Prophet (saw) who said: ‘The Friday Prayer is an obligation on every Muslim except for four people: a slave, a woman, a child and the ill.’[3] al-Hakim said: ‘the narration is sahih (rigorously authenticated) according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim although neither reported it’. al-Nasa’i narrates on the authority Ibn `Umar from Hafsa the wife of the Prophet (saw) that he said: ‘Going to the Friday Prayer is an obligation in every Muslims who reaches puberty’.[4] These narrations are what the opinion of three of the Madhahbs is based on (i.e. Malik, Shafi`i and Ibn Hanbal). As for the Ahnaf [s: Hanafis], they mention as one of the conditions of the Friday Prayer: ‘The permission of the Sultan, or his attendance or the attendance of someone officially appointed to represent him because this is how it was at the time of the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the Rightly Guided Khulafa’. This would be the case if there was an Imam or his official representative in that land where the Prayer is being offered. If neither is present due death, some tribulation or something like that, and the time of the Friday prayer entered, then the people may put someone forward to lead them in the Prayer’.[5] The opinion that the Sultan is a condition therefore is not the strongest opinion according to us based on the evidences previously mentioned.

In summary then, the Friday prayer is an individual obligation regardless of whether there is an actual khalifah or when there is no khalifah present.”[6] 

[And Allah knows best].

 [End]

s.z.c

___________________________

[1] Q & A, “The Ruling of the Friday Prayer without the Khalifah”.

[2] Q. 62:9.

[3] See also, Abu Dawud (#1067); al-Tabarani, al-Mu`jam al-Kabir, 8:385-386 (#8206); al-Darqutni, al-Sunan, 2:3 and al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan al-Kubra, 3:172.

[4] Nasa’i, Sunan (#1317).

[5] See al-Mawsu`at al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaytiyyah, 28:200 for the text.

[6] The condition is not one that is intrinsic, i.e. in and of itself but rather a means to removing disputes (tanazu`) as to who would be eligible to lead the Friday prayer congregation. Imam al-Mawsili states in al-Ikhtiyar li-Ta`lil al-Mukhtar, 1:111:

قال : ( ولا بد من السلطان أو نائبه ) لأنه لولا ذلك لاختار كل جماعة إماما فلا يتفقون على واحد فتقع بينهم المنازعة، فربما خرج الوقت ولا يصلون، ولأن ذلك يفضي إلى الفتنة، ومع وجود السلطان لا

“He said: (the sultan or his representative is necessary) because if that was not to be the case, then every person would choose who they would want to be Imam in order to lead the congregational prayer and there would be no agreement on one Imam thus giving rise to dispute. It may even be that the time will elapse and they do not end up praying as well as lead to fitnah (dissention) whereas with the presence of the sultan this will not take place…”

The Sultan will settle the dispute of who would lead the Prayer through official appointment which would become binding on all to follow and accept. Thus, it is the sultan who will settle the dispute of leading the congregational Friday prayer. In the absence of the sultan or his official representative, it would be permitted for the people to agree on someone to lead them in that Friday Prayer as stated by Imam al-Kasani in al-Bada’i` al-Sana’i`, 1:261:

فأما إذا لم يكن إماما بسبب الفتنة أو بسبب الموت ولم يحضر وال آخر بعد حتى حضرت الجمعة ذكر الكرخي أنه لا بأس أن يجمع الناس على رجل حتى يصلي بهم الجمعة، وهكذا روي عن محمد ذكره في العيون  لما روي عن عثمان رضي الله عنه أنه لما حوصر قدم الناس عليا رضي الله عنه فصلى بهم الجمعة

“If there is no Imam [s: sultan, khalifah] because of dissention or because he died or if another governor (wali) was unable to attend and the congregation had already gathered, then al-Karkhi mentioned that there is no problem in the people present at that congregation to appoint someone to lead them in the Prayer. This is what Muhammad [al-Shaybani] also related. It was mentioned in al-`Uyun of what was related regarding `Uthman (Allah be pleased with him) when he was trapped [s: and so was prevented from attending the Friday Prayer], so the people put Ali forward to lead them in the Prayer and so he did…”

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