Q & A Wudu' and Purity

Q & A: “wiping over socks…”

WIPING OVER SOCKS

Q. I get confused. Can we wipe over socks or not? I get different people telling me different things.

A.

There are specific types of footgear that are mentioned in the fiqh books and they include amongst others, the following:

  1. Jawrab (footgear made of cotton or wool [= jukh]).[1]
  2. Jurmuq (regular boots worn over light leather boots).[2]
  3. Mujallad (footgear that has an upper and sole of leather).
  4. Muna`al (footgear with only the sole made of leather).
  5. Khuff (footgear made entirely of leather).

It is permitted to wipe over all of the above except for the jawrab which is conditional upon meeting the following conditions:

  1. It has to be made of a really thick material/fabric.
  2. It must remain on the foot without being tied.
  3. It must not be see-through and transparent.
  4. It must completely cover the foot including the sides and ankles.
  5. It can endure up to 3.5 miles of tension when one walks in it.
  6. Water does not seep through when it is wiped.[3]

Imam Ibn `Abidin in his commentary on Imam al-Haskafi’s Durr al-Mukhtar writes regarding this issue:

Regarding his statement (even if it is made out of wool or hair [s: of animals]). What is included in this is jukh as was verified in Sharh al-Munya. And he said: what is not included is anything made from kirbas – with a kasra – which is a coarse cloth made from white cotton. And he also included with the kirbas anything that is made of thread such as al-kitan and al-ibrisam [s: a kind of pure unwoven silk) and other similar things to them. In the marginalia of Imam al-Halabi on the Durr al-Mukhtar [ح] he suspended judgment over the non-permissibility of wiping over them if the four conditions mentioned by the commentator were found. I say: what is apparent is that if the conditions are met, then it is permitted to wipe over them. It may be that the scholars excluded them from it because they did not fulfil most of the conditions and this is suggested in the Kafy of al-Nasafi where he justified the impermissibility of wiping over socks made of kirbas because one could not continuously walk in them which suggests that if it was possible, then he would permit wiping over it. What is also indicated is that which is mentioned in the marginalia of Imam al-Tahtawi on the Durr al-Mukhtar [ط] from al-Khaniyya that whatever is in the meaning of a khuff where one is able to walk continuously in it or undertake a journey with it even if it was byzantine wool (labad rumi), it would be permitted to wipe over it.”[4]

( قوله ولو من غزل أو شعر ) دخل فيه الجوخ كما حققه في شرح المنية. وقال : وخرج عنه ما كان من كرباس بالكسر: وهو الثوب من القطن الأبيض؛ ويلحق بالكرباس كل ما كان من نوع الخيط كالكتان والإبريسم ونحوهما. وتوقف ح في وجه عدم جواز المسح عليه إذا وجد فيه الشروط الأربعة التي ذكرها الشارح. وأقول : الظاهر أنه إذا وجدت فيه الشروط يجوز، وأنهم أخرجوه لعدم تأتي الشروط فيه غالبا، يدل عليه ما في كافي النسفي حيث علل جواز المسح على الجورب من كرباس بأنه لا يمكن تتابع المشي عليه، فإنه يفيد أنه لو أمكن جاز، ويدل عليه أيضا ما في ط عن الخانية أن كل ما كان في معنى الخف في إدمان المشي عليه وقطع السفر به ولو من لبد رومي يجوز المسح عليه . ا هـ

“Regarding his statement (thick and coarse) means that footgear which is not leather nor is the sole made of leather […] as for the conditions of something being a khuff, it was mentioned by the commentator earlier at the beginning of the section. Like [the khuff] is the jurmuq because of the fact that it is made in most part from leather […] His statement regarding (can last a walk for 1 farsakh [s: approximately three miles in distance]) can mean more as already mentioned […] (by itself) i.e. without it being tied [ط] (without it ripping or tearing) […] such that one can see what is underneath it […]”.[5]

( قوله على الثخينين ) أي اللذين ليسا مجلدين ولا منعلين نهر، وهذا التقييد مستفاد من عطف ما بعده عليه، وبه يعلم أنه نعت للجوربين فقط كما هو صريح عبارة الكنز. وأما شروط الخف فقد ذكرها أول الباب، ومثله الجرموق ولكونه من الجلد غالبا لم يقيده بالثخانة المفسرة بما ذكره الشارح؛ لأن الجلد الملبوس لا يكون إلا كذلك عادة ( قوله بحيث يمشي فرسخا ) أي فأكثر كما مر، وفاعل يمشي ضمير يعود على الجورب والإسناد إليه مجازي، أو على اللابس له والعائد محذوف أي به ( قوله بنفسه ) أي من غير شد ط ( قوله ولا يشف ) بتشديد الفاء، من شف الثوب : رق حتى رأيت ما وراءه، من باب ضرب مغرب. وفي بعض الكتب : ينشف بالنون قبل الشين، من نشف الثوب العرق كسمع ونصر شربه قاموس، والثاني أولى هنا لئلا يتكرر مع قوله تبعا للزيلعي ولا يرى ما تحته ، لكن فسر في الخانية الأولى بأن لا يشف الجورب الماء إلى نفسه كالأديم والصرم، وفسر الثاني بأن لا يجاوز الماء إلى القدم وكأن تفسيره الأول مأخوذ من قولهم اشتف ما في الإناء شربه كله كما في القاموس، وعليه فلا تكرار فافهم…قال الرافعى : (لا يشف الجورب الماء الى نفسه) أى ماء المسح لا ماء الغسل كما فى الامداد.

Imam al-Tahtawi in his glosses on the Maraqi al-Falah writes:

“(From something coarse and thick) know that the issue pertaining to khuffs has three aspects: if they are thin without leathered soles, it will not be permitted to wipe over them according to agreement of all the scholars. If they are thick, coarse and with leathered sole then it will be permitted to wipe over them according to agreement of all the scholars. However, if they are thick and coarse and are not leathered in their soles then they are a point of disagreement ad mentioned in al-Khaniyya… (and that water does not seep through) i.e. water does not reach the feet as mentioned in al-Khaniyya […]”[6]

(من شيء ثخين) اعلم أن المسئلة على ثلاثة وجوه إن كانا رقيقين غير منعلين لا يجوز المسح عليهما إتفاقا وإن كانا ثخينين منعلين جاز إتفاقا وإن كان ثخينين غير منعلين فهو محل الإخلاف كما في الخانية…(لا يشف الماء) أي لا يتجاوز منه الماء إلى القدم ذكره في الخانية… (وإليه رجع الإمام) أي قبل موته بثلاثة أيام وقيل بسبعة وذلك أنه مسح على جوربيه في مرضه ثم قال لعودة : فعلت ما كنت أمنع الناس عنه فاستدلوا بذلك على رجوعه كما في البدائع و التبيين…

 

With regard to modern nylon and cotton socks, it would not be permitted to wipe over them as they do not fulfil the conditions required for wiping.

And Allah knows best.


[1] See al-Mubarakpuri, Tuhfat al-Ahwadhi, vol.1, pp.281-282 for a list of meanins.

[2] M. R. al-Qal`aji, Mu`jam Lughat al-Fuqaha’, p.141. In al-Quduri’s Mukhtasar, p.18 it has:

“The one who wears jurmuq over his leather socks may wipe over them.”

ومن لبس الجرموق فوق الخف مسح عليه.

[3] See al-Shurunbulali, Nur al-Idah, pp.71-72; al-Sarakhsi, Kitab al-Mabsut, vol.1, p.18 and idem al-Bada’i` al-Sana’i`, vol.1, p.83; Ibn al-Nujaym, Bahr al-Ra’iq, vol.1, pp.191-192 and al-Fatawa al-Hindiyya, vol.1, p.32.

[4] Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar, vol.1, p.269.

[5] Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar, vol.1, p.269.

[6] See al-Tahtawi’s Hashiyat on Maraqi al-Falah, p.138.

 

 

 

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