الفتاوى العطائية (al-Fatawa al-'Ata'iyya)

Q & A: ‘Using blood to help others…’

Shaykh `Ata’ Ibn Khalil

“Using blood to help Others…”

***

السؤال:
أ- يتبرع الناس بالدم مجانا إلى بنوك الدم لأسباب معلومة، يفحص البنك هذا الدم فإذا كان الدم سليماً فإنه يستخدمه في مرضى آخرين، وإذا كان الدم ملوثاً وفيه فيروسات مثل الهيباتيت أو الايدز مثلا فإنه يتلف هذه الكمية المريضة من الدم.
الآن نحن نحتاج هذا الدم الملوث لإجراء الاختبارات في مخبرنا. فهل يجوز أن ناخذ هذا الدم مجانا من بنك الدم ونجري عليه الاختبارات ثم نتلف ما تبقى منها بشكل سليم لا يؤذي أحدا ولا يؤذي البيئة؟

ب- في بعض الأحيان نقوم بتصفية الفيروسات الموجودة داخل الدم من خلال اتباع إجراءات علمية معقدة ومكلفة مادياً حتى نحصل على فيروسات صافية خالصة، نستخدم قسماً منها في مختبرنا من أجل تطوير البحث العلمي في صناعة الكواشف، ونبيع القسم الباقي إلى مختبرات أخرى، وفي حال لم نستطع أن نحصل على الفيروسات الصافية فإننا نشتري الفيروس الصافي من مختبرات أخرى. فهل يجوز بيع وشراء هذه الفيروسات من أجل هذه الغاية؟

[Q]a. People donate blood free to blood banks for reasons that are known and the blood banks examine this blood. If the blood is found to be clean and uncontaminated, it is used in other patients and if the blood is found to be contaminated by, for example, viruses such as Hepatitis or AIDS, it is disposed of. At the present moment, we need this contaminated blood for testing in our laboratory. Is it permissible for us to obtain this blood free of charge from the blood banks and then carry out tests on them and then dispose of what remaining quantity of blood there is if it does not involve harming anyone or the environment?

[Q]b. Sometimes, we purify the virus present in the blood during the scientific investigation process which is difficult and expensive until we are able to arrive at a clean and purified virus which is then used in our laboratories to develop scientific research and manufacture reagents. We then sell the remaining portions to other laboratories. Moreover, in situations where we are unable to obtain uncontaminated or isolated viruses, we purchase such viruses from other laboratories. Would it be permitted to buy and sell such viruses for this specific purpose?

الجواب:

 قبل الجواب نوضح ما يلي:

الدم نجس وهو محرم.

أما الدليل على نجاسة دم الإنسان، فحديث البخاري ومسلم عن أسماء رضي الله عنها قالت: «جاءت امرأة إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم فقالت: إحدانا يصيب ثوبها من دم الحيضة كيف تصنع به؟ قال: تَحُتُّه ثم تَقْرُصه بالماء ثم تنضحه ثم تصلي فيه». وكونها

أُمِرت بغسله قبل أن تصلي دليل نجاسته

وأما الدليل على تحريمه، أكله وشربه…، فقوله تعالى: {حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةُ وَالدَّمُ وَلَحْمُ الْخِنْزِيرِ…} وقوله سبحانه: {قُلْ لَا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا عَلَى طَاعِمٍ يَطْعَمُهُ إِلَّا أَنْ يَكُونَ مَيْتَةً أَوْ دَمًا مَسْفُوحًا أَوْ لَحْمَ خِنْزِيرٍ فَإِنَّهُ رِجْسٌ أَوْ فِسْقًا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ}

Before we present the answer, we would like to clarify the following:

[1] Blood is impure and unlawful:

The evidence for human blood being impure (najis) is the hadith in Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Asma’ (Allah be pleased with her) who said: a woman came to the Prophet (Allah bless him, his family, and grant them peace) asking: one of my clothes has been stained by the blood from the menstruation. What do I do with it? He replied: ‘you should gather up the area in your fingers, rub it and wash it with water and then you can pray in it’.[1] The fact that [the Prophet] ordered her to wash the clothes before praying in it indicates the impure status of blood.

As for the evidence for its prohibition, whether to eat or drink it, Allah most High says: {Forbidden for you are the carrion, blood, and swine meat...}[2] and His saying glorified is He {Say: ‘I do not find, in what has been revealed to me, any food that is unlawful to eat except for carrion, flowing blood, and swine meat – for that is unclean – or some deviance consecrated to other than Allah. But if anyone is forced to eat it, without desiring to or going to excess in it, your Lord is Ever-Forgiving, Most Merciful}.[3]

الانتفاع بالنجس والمحرم حرام، ومن الأدلة على ذلك:

 –أخرج البخاري عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ عَامَ الْفَتْحِ وَهُوَ بِمَكَّةَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ حَرَّمَ بَيْعَ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْتَةِ وَالْخِنْزِيرِ وَالْأَصْنَامِ فَقِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ شُحُومَ الْمَيْتَةِ فَإِنَّهَا يُطْلَى بِهَا السُّفُنُ وَيُدْهَنُ بِهَا الْجُلُودُ وَيَسْتَصْبِحُ بِهَا النَّاسُ فَقَالَ لَا هُوَ حَرَامٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ قَاتَلَ اللَّهُ الْيَهُودَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمَّا حَرَّمَ شُحُومَهَا جَمَلُوهُ ثُمَّ بَاعُوهُ فَأَكَلُوا ثَمَنَهُ 

وفي تهذيب الآثار للطبري عن جابر قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: لا تَنْتَفِعوا مِنَ الميْتَةِ بِشَيْءٍ

وقد استثني جلد الميتة كما جاء في حديث أبي داود عن ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ مُسَدَّدٌ وَوَهْبٌ عَنْ مَيْمُونَةَ قَالَتْ أُهْدِيَ لِمَوْلَاةٍ لَنَا شَاةٌ مِنْ الصَّدَقَةِ فَمَاتَتْ فَمَرَّ بِهَا النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ أَلَا دَبَغْتُمْ إِهَابَهَا وَاسْتَنْفَعْتُمْ بِهِ قَالُوا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهَا مَيْتَةٌ قَالَ إِنَّمَا حُرِّمَ أَكْلُهَا

وأخرج البخاري عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ عَامَ الْفَتْحِ وَهُوَ بِمَكَّةَإِنَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ حَرَّمَ بَيْعَ الْخَمْرِ.

وأخرج البخاري كذلك عَنْ أَنَسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ كُنْتُ سَاقِيَ الْقَوْمِ فِي مَنْزِلِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ وَكَانَ خَمْرُهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْفَضِيخَ فَأَمَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مُنَادِيًا يُنَادِي أَلَا إِنَّ الْخَمْرَ قَدْ حُرِّمَتْ قَالَ فَقَالَ لِي أَبُو طَلْحَةَ اخْرُجْ فَأَهْرِقْهَا فَخَرَجْتُ فَهَرَقْتُهَا فَجَرَتْ فِي سِكَكِ الْمَدِينَةِ.

وأخرج أبو داود عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ حَرَّمَ الْخَمْرَ وَثَمَنَهَا وَحَرَّمَ الْمَيْتَةَ وَثَمَنَهَا وَحَرَّمَ الْخِنْزِيرَ وَثَمَنَهُ

[2] Benefiting from anything impure or unlawful is not permitted. The evidences for that are:

[a] what Bukhari narrates from Jabir b. `Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with them both) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say in the year of the conquest of Mecca: ‘Indeed Allah and His Messenger have prohibited trading alcohol, carrion, swine meat and idols’. The people asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah! What about the fat of dead animals for it was used for greasing the boats and the hides and people use it for lights?’ He replied: No, it is not lawful.’ The Messenger of Allah further said: ‘May Allah curse the Jews for Allah made the fat [of animals] unlawful for them and yet they melted the fat and sold it and ate its price…[4]

[b] And in the Tahdhib al-Athar of al-Tabari on the authority of Jabir who said: the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘It is not allowed to benefit from the dead at whatsoever’[5]

[c] An exemption exists regarding using the hide or skin of the dead animal as mentioned in the hadith of Abu Dawud on the authority of Ibn `Abbas: Musaddad and Wahb relate on the authority of Maymuna who said: a sheep was given to her servant as charity and it died. The Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed by it and said: ‘Have you tanned its skin or used it?’ They said: O Messenger of Allah, it is dead.’ He said: ‘Indeed [only] eating it is forbidden.’…”[6]

[d] Bukhari narrates on the authority of Jabir b. `Abd Allah (Allah be pleased with them both) that he heard the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say in the year of the Conquest of Mecca whilst he was in Mecca: ‘Indeed Allah and His Messenger have forbidden the sale of intoxicants.’[7]

[e] Bukhari also narrates on the authority of Anas (Allah be pleased with him) who said: I was at the house of Abu Talha (Allah be pleased with him) and al-fadikh wine was being served when the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered a person to announce: ‘Beware! Wine has been made unlawful!’ He said: Abu Talha asked me go out pour the wine out so I went out and poured it out. The streets of Media were flowing with wine.[8]

[f] Abu Dawud narrates on the authority of Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘Allah has forbidden wine and its price; forbidden carrion and its price; and forbidden pork and its price.’[9]

يستثنى من التحريم التداوي، فالتداوي في المحرم والنجس ليس حراماً:

أما أن التداوي بالمحرم ليس حراماً فلحديث مسلم عن أنس «رَخَّصَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَوْ رُخِّصَ لِلزُّبَيْرِ بْنِ الْعَوَّامِ وَعَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ فِي لُبْسِ الْحَرِيرِ لِحِكَّةٍ كَانَتْ بِهِمَا». ولبس الحرير للرجالِ حرام، ولكنه جاز في التداوي. وكذلك لحديث النسائي وأبي داود والترمذي واللفظ للنسائي: حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ طَرَفَةَ عَنْ جَدِّهِ عَرْفَجَةَ بْنِ أَسْعَدَ أَنَّهُ أُصِيبَ أَنْفُهُ يَوْمَ الْكُلَابِ فِي الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَاتَّخَذَ أَنْفًا مِنْ وَرِقٍ فَأَنْتَنَ عَلَيْهِ «فَأَمَرَهُ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ أَنْفًا مِنْ ذَهَبٍ» والذهب للرجال حرام، ولكنه جاز في التداوي.

وأما أن التداوي بالنجس ليس حراماً فلحديث البخاري عن أنس رضي الله عنه «أَنَّ نَاسًا اجْتَوَوْا فِي الْمَدِينَةِ فَأَمَرَهُمْ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنْ يَلْحَقُوا بِرَاعِيهِ يَعْنِي الْإِبِلَ فَيَشْرَبُوا مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا فَلَحِقُوا بِرَاعِيهِ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْ أَلْبَانِهَا وَأَبْوَالِهَا…». ومعنى اجتووا أَيْ لَمْ يُوَافِقْهُمْ طَعَامهَا، فمرضوا، والرسول صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم أجاز لهم في التداوي “البول” وهو نجس، فقد أخرج البخاري عن أبي هريرة أنه قال «قام أعرابي فبال في المسجد، فتناوله الناس، فقال لهم النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: دعوه وهَريقوا على بوله سَجْلاً من ماء -أو ذَنُوباً من ماء- فإنما بُعثتم مُيسِّرين ولم تُبعثوا مُعسِّرين»، قوله سَجْلاً وذَنُوباً: أي الدلو المملوءة.

[3] Medical treatment is an exception to this prohibition because using impure and unlawful things for treatment is permitted:

The evidence that medical treatment is an exception and not unlawful is found in the narration by Muslim on the authority of Anas (Allah be pleased with him) where he says that: ‘the Prophet granted concession to Zubayr b. al-`Awwam and `Abd al-Rahman b. `Awf for the wearing silk because of an itch which they both had.’[10]Wearing silk is prohibited for men but is allowed for medical reasons.

Likewise, there is the hadith narrated by al-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi and the wording from al-Nasa’i: `Abd al-Rahman bin Tarfa related from his grandfather `Arfaja b. As`ad who said that he had his nose cut off or injured during the battle of al-Kulab in the time of Jahiliyya and got a silver nose, but it developed a stench, so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered him to get a gold nose.[11] Gold is forbidden for men, but its use is allowed for medical purposes.

As for the use of impure things not being prohibited for medical purposes, there is a hadith in Bukhari on the authority of Anas (Allah bless be pleased with him): Some people came to Medina and [they became ill] so the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered them to go to the herd of she-camels and told them to go out and drink the camels’ urine and milk [s: as a medicine]. So they went and drank it…’[12]What it means is that they became ill from eating food and so the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) permitted them to drink urine which is impure.

Bukhari has narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayra (Allah be pleased with him), who said: A Bedouin stood up and started urinating in the mosque. The people caught him but the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) ordered them to leave him and to pour a bucket or a tumbler of water over the place where he had passed the urine. The Prophet then said: ‘You have been sent to make things easy and not to make them difficult’.[13]

 الأصل في الأشياء الإباحة ما لم يرد دليل التحريم، ومن أدلتها قوله تعالى:

(أَلَمْ تَرَوا أنَّ اللهَ سخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَا في السَّمواتِ ومَا في الأرْضِ) لقمان/آية20.

(أَلَمْ ترَ أَنَّ اللهَ سخَّرَ لكُمْ مَا في الأرض) الحج/آية65.

(وسخّر لكم ما في السموات وما في الأرض جميعاً منه) [الجاثية 13

من هذه النصوص يتبين أن الشارع أباح الأشياء جميعها، بمعنى أنه أحلها، والإباحة في الأشياء معناها الحلال، أي: ضدّ الحرام، وبذلك فإن تحريم بعض الأشياء يحتاج إلى نصّ يستثنيها مما أبيح في الأصل. وهكذا فإن الأصل في الأشياء الإباحة ما لم يرد دليل التحريم.

وهي تختلف عن الأفعال حيث إن الأصل في الأفعال التقيد بالحكم الشرعي التكليفي والوضع “فرض، مندوب…سبب، شرط…” كما هو معروف في الأصول.

ويكون الجواب على السؤالين على النحو التالي:

أولاً: إذا كانت الفحوصات على الدم الملوث هي فحوصات دوائية أي لمعرفة المرض وعلاجه بالأدوية المناسبة ونحو ذلك فجائز. وإن كانت الفحوصات على الدم الملوث لا علاقة لها بصنع دواء لعلاج المرض أو نحوه، فلا يجوز.وذلك لأن الدم نجس ومحرم، والانتفاع بالنجس والمحرم حرام إلا للتداوي.

ثانياً: إن كان فصل “الفيروس” من الدم هو لإجراء تجارب وأبحاث دوائية فجائز، أي إذا كان إخضاع الدم الملوث للأعمال المخبرية لفصل الفيروس عنه هو لإجراء التجارب الدوائية على الفيروس لمعرفة الدواء المناسب، فإنه جائز.
وأما إن كان فصل الفيروس عن الدم لإجراء تجارب غير الدواء فلا يجوز، لأن الدم الملوث نجس ومحرم، والانتفاع به لا يجوز.

ثالثاً: الفيروسات طاهرة لأنها شيء لم يرد دليل على تحريمه، فهي طاهرة وفق القاعدة الشرعية المذكورة، وعليه فإن وُجدت وحدها أي غير ملوثة بالدم، فإنه يجوز شراؤها وبيعها وإجراء أي أبحاث علمية عليها، وبطبيعة الحال فإن الأبحاث العلمية يجب أن تكون لمنفعة الإنسان وليس لإلحاق الضرر به لأن الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: «لا ضَرَرَ وَلَا ضِرَارَ.

22 من صفر 1432هـ

26/1/2011

[4] The operating norm is that all things are permitted until an evidence establishes its prohibition. Evidences for that include:[14]

[a]{Do you not see that Allah has subjected to you everything in the heavens and earth};[15]

[b] {Do you not see that Allah has made everything on the earth subservient to you}[16] and

[c] {And He has made everything in the heavens and everything on the earth subservient to you. It is all from Him. There are certainly Signs in that for people who reflect}.[17]

From these texts, it becomes clear that the Legislator has permitted all things, which means that they are allowed. When objects are allowed, it means they are lawful, i.e. the opposite of unlawful. Hence to prohibit certain things requires a text that makes an exception to it what is permissible in origin. Thus, the original and operating rule for things is they are lawful unless there is an evidence for its prohibition.

This rule however is different when it comes to actions which in origin are restricted by the shar`i rulings commands which makes actions as either: obligatory, recommended…or requiring a reason (sabab), a condition (shart) etc. as is known from the science of Usul.

Hence the answer to the two questions would be as follows:

Firstly: If the investigations on the contaminated blood are medical investigations, i.e. they are carried out in order to identify and illness and treat it with appropriate medication or anything like that, then this would be permitted. However, if the investigations on the contaminated blood are not related to any medical investigation or finding a medicine to cure such a illness or anything like that, then it would not be permitted. The reason being is because blood is impure and unlawful and as such it is permitted only for medical purposes.

Secondly: If the isolation of the virus from the blood is for carrying out scientific investigations and medical research, then it is permitted, i.e. if the contaminated blood is subjected to laboratory tests in order to isolate the virus from it and this is done with the objective of carrying out medical tests on the virus so that appropriate medicine could be developed, then it would permitted. However, if the process of isolating the virus from the blood is intended for non-medical purposes, then it is not permitted because the contaminated blood is impure and unlawful and as such taking any advantage from it is not permitted.

Thirdly: The viruses are not impure since there is no evidence found for its prohibition and so it is pure in accordance with the afore-mentioned legal maxim. Thus if the virus was found not to be mixed with the blood, i.e. not contaminated with the blood, then its sale, purchase as well its use for carrying out any investigation will be permitted. As a matter of fact the scientific tests must be meant for the benefit of human beings and not to cause harm because the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) said: ‘Do no harm and do not be harmed.’

[End]


[1] Bukhari, Sahih (#308 & 1212); Muslim, Sahih (#291 & 1581) and al-Nawawi, Khulasat al-Ahkam, 1:67.

[2] Q. 5:3.

[3] Q. 6:145.

[4] Bukhari, Sahih (#2236).

[5] Bukhari, al-Tarikh al-Kabir, 4:167 and al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar, 1:87.

[6] Abu Dawud, Sunan (#4120).

[7] Bukhari, Sahih (#2236).

[8] Bukhari, Sahih (2464#).

[9] Abu Dawud, Sunan (#3488) and Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, al-Jami` li-`Ulum al-Hikam, 1:415-416.

[10] Bukhari, Sahih (#5419) and al-Bayhaqi, al-Sunan al-Kubra (#5601).

[11] See al-Nasa’i, Sunan (#9112-9113); Abu Dawud, Sunan (#3699) and Tirmidhi, Sunan (#1690).

[12] Bukhari, Sahih (#5362).

[13] Bukhari, Sahih (#217).

[14] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyya al-Islamiyya, 3:44-47.

[15] Q. 31:20.

[16] Q. 22:65.

[17] Q. 45:13.

 

 

 

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