Q & A
Q. What do you say after you burp? Culture let’s a woman wear make-up. What does Islam say? Do you need parents’ consent to get married/can you just tell them after?
1. Many people say “praise be to Allah!” (al-hamdulillah/الحمد لله) after they belch or burp. This has not been recorded anywhere in any authentically established tradition (hadith) of the Prophet. Perhaps it is one of those matters related to etiquette where one thanks Allah for the food and relief from gas or digestive difficulties at that moment. Others say “I seek refuge in Allah!” (astaghfirullah/أستغفر الله) again with no established narration from the hadith of the Prophet (SAW) perhaps said out of forgiveness for over eating to the point of belching. And Allah alone knows best.
2. According to the scholars, one may wear kohl (eye make-up) as it is one of the sunnah actions of the Prophet (SAW) and hence permitted for both males and females. As for make-up in general, the verse related to the matter is in surat al-Nur:31:
(And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what must ordinarily appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, or their brothers’ sons or their sisters’ sons, or their women or the servants whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex, and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O you Believers, turn you all together towards Allah, that you may attain Bliss).
With regard to the above description “except what must ordinarily appear there of” (illa ma zahara minha), the mufassirun (Qur’anic commentators) have explained this to mean:
1. The woman’s dress (al-thiyab), according to Ibn Mas`ud.
2. Her kohl (eye colour) or ring (al-khatim), according to Ibn `Abbas (RA), Mujahid and Miswar b. Makhramah.
3. Her face (al-wajh) and hands (al-kaffan), according al-Hasan, Ibn Jarir, Sa`id. b. Jubayr, al-Awza`i, al-Dahhak and `Ata’.
4. Bracelet (al-siwar), colouring (al-khidab) and earrings (al-qurtah) according to Qatadah and others.
So, those which may remain uncovered are the above i.e. that which is allowed to remain exposed and permitted to look at in general.
Excessive make-up (i.e. beyond the requirements and demands of the verse) in order to attract the opposite sex and lure them to gaze and stare is not permissible. This excessive make-up may include additional items and finishes such as: lip-stick; polishes, glosses, strong perfumes etc. for the purposes of public attraction and adornment.
Allah has ordered both men and women to be modest and aware of the dangers that result in unrestricted attraction generated by one for the other. The whole desired outcome for the dress codes given by Allah is to establish and encourage modesty while in public. And with Allah lies all success.
A. 3. As for marriage without parental consent, strictly speaking it is not an essential pillar of the marriage contract (i.e. a rukn) according to the scholars of the Madhab of Imam Abu Hanifah (RA) but it is also extremely unfortunate that two people seek marriage without the blessings of the parents whose pleasure and displeasure are Allah’s pleasure and displeasure and who are the means for children to attain Paradise. However, the approval and consent of parents ought to be sought so that there is familial and reciprocal love, goodness and blessing (barakah) in the marriage tie. This is achievable with effort, e.g. to open dialogue and talk with the parents in addition to sincere du`a’ and salat al-istikharah (the guidance prayer).
Because it is inappropriate to issue answers based upon no details or specifics, it must always be referred to men and women of reliable and sound knowledge for guidance and help.
And with Allah is all success.
 See Akhlaq al-Nabi of Abu Shaykh al-Asbahani, hadith no.487-492.
 This also applies to henna and rings.
 See al-Mawardi, al-Nukat wa ’l-`Uyun, vol.3, pp.120-121; Ibn al-`Arabi al-Maliki, Ahkam al-Qur’an, vol.3, pp.1368-1369.