Biographies

Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz_entry

The Caliph ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz

(61-101 AH)[1]

عمر بن عبد العزيز: ابن حجر العسقلاني

S. Z. C. Winter 2003. 

Number: 4940. ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-Azīz b. Marwān b. al-H{akam b. Abī al-‘Ās} al-Umawī.

‘Leader of the Believers’ (amīr al-muminīn). His mother is Umm ‘Ās}im bint ‘Ās}im b. ‘Umar b. al-Khat}t}āb. He was governor of the authority in Madīnah for Walīd[2] and was with Sulaymān[3] as a minister and then was in charge of the khilāfah after him. He is also considered one of the ‘Rightly Guided Caliphs’ (khulafā al-rāshidīn). He is of the ‘Fourth’ ranking (al-rābi‘).[4] He passed away in the month of Rajab 101 AH; he was forty years old. The period of his reign was two and half years.[5]

= The Kāshif[6] of al-Dhahabī: on the authority of ‘Abd Allāh b. Ja‘far, Anas, ibn al-Musayyab; from him narrated his son, Ibrāhīm b. Abī ‘Ablah, Ayyūb and many others.

= The Marāsīl of Abū Zur‘ah:[7] ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-Azīz b. Marwān b. al-H{akam; Abū H{ātim [al-Rāzī] was asked: ‘did he hear from ‘Abd Allāh b. ‘Umar?’ He replied, ‘no.’ Abū H{ātim also said: ‘He was governor in Madīnah while Salamah b. al-Akū‘ and Sahl b. Sa‘ad were alive (h}ayyān); so if both were around, then he used to write to them.’[8]

al-‘Alā’ī said: ‘And it is found in the writings of Hāfiz} al-D{iyā’ that he is not known to have heard from Khawlah bint H{akīm neither did he hear from Tamīm al-Dārī nor from ‘Ā’ishah the Mother of the Believers – May Allah be pleased with her.’ I say: his narrations from ‘Uqbah b. ‘Āmir al-Juhnī are found in the Sunan of ibn Mājah. And al-Mizzī[9] said: ‘it is said [regarding those narrations] that they are marāsīl.’ End.

= In the Ziyādāt al-Marāsīl: Abū Muh}ummad al-Dārimī said: ‘He did not meet (lam yaliq) ‘Uqbah b. ‘Āmir.’

          al-Tirmidhī states in his Jāmi‘ (#1910): ‘We do not know of ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz hearing from Khawlah [bint H{akīm].’[10]

          al-Daraqut}nī said in his Sunan (1/157): ‘he neither heard from Tamīm al-Dārī nor saw him.’[11]

And in the introduction to ‘Ayyāsh b. Abī Rabī‘ah from the book al-Tahdhīb: ‘and ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz from [Tamīm al-Darī] is mursal.

 
And Allah knows best
s.z.c.


[1] Translated from the Taqrīb al-Tahdhīb of the unrivalled expert, foremost Jurist, Supreme Judge and ‘Amīr al-Mu’minīn’ in h}adīth scholarship, al-Imām Shihāb al-Dīn Ah}mad b. ‘Alī b. H{ajar al-‘Asqalāni (d.756), ed. with additional texts by Hassān ‘Abd al-Mannān, 1st edn. Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyyah, ‘Ammān 1421AH, p.457. For introductory references to his life and excellence, see Badā’ial-Zuhūr fī Waqā’ial-Duhūr by ibn Iyyās al-H{anafī, 2:268-270; al-Shawkānī, al-Badr al-T{āli‘, 1:87; Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūt}ī: Dhayl al-T{abaqāt li ’l-Dhahabī, pp.380-382; T{abaqāt al-H{uffaz}, pp.551-552; Naz}m al-Uqyān fī Ayān al-Ayān, pp.43-45; al-D{awal-Lumali-Ahl al-Qurn al-Tāsi‘, 3:36-40 & Khayr al-Kalām fī ’l-Dhayl alā Duwal al-Islām, 2:622 both by ibn H{ajar’s gifted student al-H{āfiz} Shams al-Dīn Muh}ummad b. ‘Abd al-Rah}mān al-Sakhāwī all quoted in the introduction to the Taqrīb al-Tahdhīb, p.11.

[2] Walīd b. ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwān, Abū ’l-‘Abbās.

[3] Sulaymān ‘Abd al-Malik, Abū Ayyūb.

[4] That is, ibn H{ajar grades ‘Umar b. ‘Abd al-‘Azīz as being among those of the lower middle category pertaining to the generation of the successors according to his twelve-scale classification. H{āfiz} Abū H{ātim Muh}ummad b. H{ibbān grades him as “thiqah” (trustworthy) in al-Thiqāt, 1st edn. ed. by Dr. Muh}ummad Mufīd Khān, H{aydar Ābād: Dā’irah al-Ma‘ārif al-‘Uthmāniyyah, Deccan 1973, vol.5, p.151 & so too does Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muh}ummad b. Sa‘d in his al-T{abaqāt alKubrā, ed. by Ih}sān ‘Abbās, Dār al-S{ādir, Beirut 1960, vol.5, p.330.

[5] For a brief account of his life see Imām Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūt}ī’s, Tārīkh al-Khulafā’ ed. by T{ahā ‘Abd al-Ra‘ūf Sa‘d & Yāsir S{alāh} ‘Azab, Maktabah al-Tawfīqiyyah, Cairo n.d. pp.201-216 & Tārīkh al-Duwal al-Islāmiyyah bi ’l-Jadāwul al-Mard}iyyah by al-Sayyid Dah}lān, 1st edn. Maktabah al-Īmān bi ’l-Mans}ūrah, Cairo 2000, pp.13-14.

[6] See al-Kāshif fī Marifah man lahu Riwāyah fī ’l-Kutub al-Sittah 1st edn. Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah, Beirut 1983 by the h}adīth master H{āfiz} Abū ‘Abd Allāh b. Ah}mad b. ‘Uthmān Shams al-Dīn al-Dhahabī (d.748). See also his Siyar al-Alām al-Nubalā’, 3rd edn. ed. under the supervision of Shu‘ayb al-Arnā’ūt}, Mu’assasah al-Risālah,Beirut 1405 AH, vol.5, p.114.

[7] Tuh}fah al-Tah}s}īl fī Dhikr al-Ruwāt al-Marāsīl, 1st edn. ed. by Dr. Nāfiz H{usayn H{ammād & Dr. ‘Alī ‘Abd al-Bāsit} Mazīr, Maktabah al-Khānjī, Cairo 2000 by the giant scholar of h}adīth in Iraq Walī al-Dīn Ah}mad b. ‘Abd al-Rah}īm Abū Zur‘ah al-‘Irāqī (d.867), p.375.

[8] See his al-Jarh}  wa ’l-Tadīl, 1st edn. Dār al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah,Beirut n.d. vol.6, p.122.

[9] See Tahdhīb al-Kamāl of the famous teacher of al-Dhahabī and student of Imām al-Nawawī, al-H{āfiz} Jamāl al-Dīn al-Mizzī, 3rd edn. ed. by Dr. Bashshār Ma‘rūf, Mu’assasah al-Risālah,Beirut 1403AH, vol.21, p.433.

[10] See al-Jāmial-Mukhtas}ar min Sunan al-Rasūl Allāh (SAW) wa Marifah al-S{ah}īh} wa ’l-Malūl wa maalayhi al-Amal, known famously as the Sunan al-Tirmidhī, ed. by Muh}ummad Nās}ir al-Dīn al-Albānī, 1st edn. Maktabah al-Ma‘ārif li ’l-Nashar wa ’l-Tawzī‘, Riyād} 1417AH, p.437.

[11] See al-H{āfiz} Abū ’l-H{asan ‘Alī b. ‘Umar al-Dāraqut}nī, al-Sunan, ed. by al-Sayyid ‘Abd Allāh Hāshim Yamānī, 1st edn. Dār al-Mah}āsin,Cairo 1966.  

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