Biographies

Mus`ab ibn `Umayr (Allah be pleased with him)

Mus`ab b. `Umayr

(May Allah be pleased with him)

~ Lives of the Companions Series ~ 

1. His name and family:

“…Mus`ab b. `Umayr b. Hashim b. `Abd al-Manaf b. `Abd al-Dar b. Qusayy [b. Kilab b. Murra][1] al-Qurashi al-`Abdariyy…”[2]

… مصعب بن عمير بن هاشم بن عبد المناف بن عبد الدار بن قصي قصي بن [كلاب بن مرة] القرشي العبدري …

 

“Mus`ab had a child called Zaynab and her mother was called Hamna bint Jahsh…”[3]

وكان لمصعب من الولد ابنة يقال لها زينب وأمها حمنة بنت جحش بن رباب بن يعمر بن صبرة بن مرة بن كثير بن غنم بن دودان بن أسد بن خزيمة.

  • He was later nick-named Mus`ab b. Khayr (‘Mus`ab the Good’) by the Companions.

2. His kunya (‘agnomen’):

“…his agnomen (yakni) was Abu `Abd Allah…”[4]

… يكنى أبا عبد الله …

3. His excellence: 

“…he was considered amongst the most honourable, illustrious and distinguished of the Companions…”[5]

… كان من جلة الصحابة و فضلائهم …

“…he was of the most virtuous, excellent and best of Companions from the first who embraced Islam…”[6]

… كان من فضلاء الصحابة وخيارهم ومن السابقين إلى الإسلام …

4. His life in a snapshot:

 a. Description

  • Al-Waqidi and Ibn Ishaq report about Mus`ab b. `Umayr: Young, extremely handsome, well-groomed…

“…he was one of the youth of Meccawho was extremely handsome but also arrogant and prideful…”[7]

… كان مصعب ابن عمير فتى مكة شبابا و جمالا و تيـــها …

  • Al-Waqidi reports: His parents loved him; gave him whatever he wanted…

“…his parents loved him [and showered him with gifts]. His mother would clothe him (taksuwuhu) with the finest and beautiful garments…”[8]

… و كان أبواه يحبانه و كانت أمه تكسوه أحسن ما يكون من الثياب …

  • Al-Waqidi reports: he was the most scented, perfumed and notable person inMecca…

“…he was one of the most fragranced and perfumed person in Meccaand used to wear [the finest cut] Yemeni sandals…”[9]

… و كان أعطر أهل مكة يلبس الحضرمــي من النعـال…

  • He was so well known inMeccathat the Prophet (SAW) would say when he saw Mus`ab:

“…I have not seen a more handsome and slender man in Meccathan Mus`ab b. `Umayr and I have not seen a person more blessed by Allah’s bounty than Mus`ab b. Umayr…”[10]

كان يقول و يذكر النبي :

ما رأيت بمكة أحسن لمة و لا أرق حلة و لا أنعم نعمــة من مصعب بن عمير …

Sa`d Ibn Abi Waqqas said: “Mus`ab ibn `Umayr was the most blessed boy (ghulam) in Mecca as well as the most handsome along with his parents…”[11]

قال ابن ابي وقاص :

كان مصعب بن عمير أنعم غلام بمكة و أجوده حلة مع أبويه …

Sa`d Ibn Abi Waqqas also said: “We were a people who would be afflicted by hardship in Meccawith the Messenger of Allah (saw). When we were afflicted, we accepted it and endured it. Mus`ab b. `Umayr was one of the most blessed and handsome boy in Meccabecause of his parents. Then I saw him strive and struggle to the utmost in Islam to the extent that I saw the skin of his body like snakes skin [ … ] Then Allah (Mighty and Exalted) honoured him with martyrdom at the day of Uhud.”[12]

سعد بن أبي وقاص قال: كنا قوماً يصيبنا ظلف العيش بمكة مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وشدته، فلما أصابنا البلاء اعترافنا لذلك، وصبرنا له، وكان مصعب بن عمير أنعم إلام بمكة، وأجوده حلة مع أبويه، ثم لقد رأيته جهد في الإسلام جهداً شديدا حتى لقد رأيت جلده يتحشف تحشف جلد الحية عنها حتى أن كنا لنعرضه على قسينا فنحمله مما به من الجهد، وما يقصر عن شيء بلغناه، ثم أكرمه الله عز وجل بالشهادة يوم أحد.

  • He was the finest looking youth ofMecca.
  • His parents were rich and well-off.
  • His family were part of the nobility ofMecca.
  • He had the most expensive gear and finest clothes.
  • He lived lavishly and luxuriously.
  • His perfumed body reached the noses of everyone and even the Prophet knew of him and his fame.
  • He was the topic of the talk for the girls ofMecca.
  • He knew every ‘hotspot’ inMeccaand where the notables hung out.
  • He was intelligent and possessed elevated rhetorical skills.
  • He had desire to always know what was new in town.[13]
  • All these characteristics would be turned around for the benefit of Islam.

b. Conversion

  • The Prophet was preaching in Meccain a house of a person called al-Arqam Ibn Abi al-Arqam (known as the dar al-arqam [‘house of al-Arqam’]).
  • There was a buzz about the city of a new message brought by a man called Muhammad and his teachings about One God, the Qur’an andParadise.
  • Mus`ab heard that the Prophet was meeting dignitaries and influential people.
  • Mus`ab’s interest was prickled and he instantly went to this dar al-arqam.
  • There he saw the Prophet discussing Islam with notables and individuals.[14]
  • The Prophet was reciting verses (ayat) of the Qur’an and Mus`ab was struck by the beauty, splendour and eloquence of the composition.
  • He was spellbound by the recitation and the Prophet touched his noble hand on his heart and it throbbed with ecstasy. > Mus`ab became Muslim.[15]

 c. Mother

  • Mus`ab’s mother was Khannas bint Malik and she was a dignitary, notable and powerful lady inMecca.
  • She did not know about his conversion to Islam.
  • Mus`ab kept his faith secret:

“…he embraced Islam in the Dar al-Arqam but kept his faith a secret from his mother and family out of fear…”[16] 

أسلم و رسول الله في دار الأرقم وكتم إسلامه خوفا من أمه وقومه

  • Mus`ab feared no-one inMeccaexcept his mother.
  • He could not face her and disappoint her.
  • However, he still used to visit the Prophet who taught Mus`ab and thoroughly trained him.
  • Mus`ab became a disciple of the Prophet and a prominently learned individual.

“…he would frequent the Prophet in secret and [be instructed] until he was seen praying one time by `Uthman b. Talha who hurried and went back and reported [what he saw] to [Mus`ab’s] mother and people…”[17]

فكان يختلف إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم سرا … فبصر به عثمان بن طلحة يصلي . فأخبر به أمه و قومه …

  •  Mecca had spies everywhere.
  • The Prophet was always followed and spied on and people were always reporting information of his whereabouts.
  • Mus`ab’s mother was astonished to hear about his conversion.
  • She called for her son before the chieftains of Mecca and insisted to know the truth.
  • Mus`ab calmly told her and everyone about his new found faith and invited them to accept Islam.
  • They all refused.
  • He was imprisoned in the basement of his own house.

“…they seized him and then tied him up…”[18]

… فأخذوه و حبسوا …

  • His mother tried to strike him out of anger but recoiled out of motherly instinct.
  • She was angry and starved him from food and water.
  • Mus`ab managed to deceive his mother into letting him out and escaped fleeing with other Muslims who were migrating to Abyssinia for a safe haven.

 c. Da`wa and hardship

  • Mus`ab’s journey with the Prophet and Islam began the moment he fled from his home.

“… he did not remain imprisoned and joined the [first] migration to Abyssinia. However he returned from Abyssiniato Mecca[again] and then migrated to Medinaafter the First Pledge of al-`Aqaba in order to teach people the Qur’an and prayer…”[19]

فلم يزل محبوسا إلى أن هاجر إلى أرض الحبشة وعاد من الحبشة إلى مكة ثم هاجر إلى المدينة بعد العقبة الأولى ليعلم الناس القرآن ويصلي بهم …

 

  • He received news that the new Muslims that were persecuted were commanded to go toAbyssinia.
  • He joined the first migration toAbyssiniaand preached Islam there.
  • False news that the situation inMeccahad improved prompted Mus`ab to return.
  • He also longed the company of the Prophet.
  • He also accompanied the second migration to Abyssinia.
  • Upon return, he was threatened to be confined again by his mother but he refused to be made so.
  • He invited her to accept Islam:

“…she began to cry and [Mus`ab] said to her: ‘o mother, I sincerely advise you out of compassion, declare the shahada; that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger…”[20]

وجعلت تبكي فقال مصعب يا أمة إني لك ناصح عليك شفيق فاشهدي أنه لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله

  • His mother cast him out wanting nothing to do with him anymore and cut his provisions completely.

She said: “Get out of here! I am no longer your mother!”[21] 

اذهب لشأنك، لم أعد لك أمّا

She also said: “I swear by the stars! I will not enter your religion, degrade my status and make feeble my intelligence!”[22]

قسما بالثواقب، لا أدخل في دينك، فيزرى برأيي، ويضعف عقلي

  • His mother – who he loved so much – cut of all provisions:

“When Mus`ab b. `Umayr’s mother found out he accepted Islam, she cut off all his food and drink and threw him out of the house. He was one of the most blessed people who lived in opulence and then became someone whose skin had become as coarse as snakes skin…”[23]

ولما علمت أم مصعب بن عمير بإسلامه منعته الطعام والشراب، وأخرجته من بيته، وكان من أنعم الناس عيشًا، فتَخَشَّفَ جلده تخشف الحية

  • He now lived on a coarse cloth and with little/no food but became fully concerned with serving Allah and his Messenger and for furthering the call to Islam.
  • His sacrifice began.
  • From possessing everything he had nothing.

The Prophet saw [Mus`ab] with the eyes of wisdom, thankful and loving, and his lips smiling gracefully said:

“I saw Mus`ab here and there was no youth in Meccamore petted by his parents than he. Then he abandoned all that for the love of Allah and His Prophet!”[24]

وتملى رسول الله مشهده بنظرات حكيمة، شاكرة محبة، وتألقت على شفتيه ابتسامته الجليلة، وقال:

لقد رأيت مصعبا هذا، وما بمكة فتى أنعم عند أبويه منه، ثم ترك ذلك كله حبا لله ورسوله.

From `Ali: “The Messenger of Allah (saw) saw Mus`ab b. `Umayr and cried because of the great blessings he used to have [before]…”[25]

عن علي قال : رأى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم مصعب بن عمير فبكى للذي كان فيه من النعمة

“[Mus`ab] suffered the trial of poverty, the trial of rejection and displacement from his family, the trial of his family, friends, close-ones and kinsfolk, the trial of hunger, torture and affliction, the trial of estrangement and distance from his land. He came out victorious over all these trials with his religion and faith with the utmost conviction, tranquility and firmness…”[26]

…فقد تعرض لمحنة الفقر، ومحنة فقد الوجاهة والمكانة عند أهله، ومحنة الأهل والأقارب والعشيرة، ومحنة الجوع والتعذيب، ومحنة الغربة والابتعاد عن الوطن، فخرج من كل تلك المحن منتصرا بدينه وإيمانه، مطمئنا أعمق الاطمئنان، ثابتًا أقوى الثبات

  • Thus, in this state of utter abject poverty, hunger and weakness but rich in faith, full with the light of guidance and strong with the energy for Islam, Mus`ab was sent by the Prophet on perhaps the most important singular mission in early Islamic Meccan history.

“…and then he migrated to Medina after the First Pledge of al-`Aqaba in order to teach people the Qur’an and pray with them…”[27]

ثم هاجر إلى المدينة بعد العقبة الأولى ليعلم الناس القرآن ويصلي بهم

“…so the Messenger of Allah (saw) sent Mus`ab b. `Umayr with a group of people. This is because they wrote to the Messenger of Allah (saw) asking him to send someone from his Companions to teach them about the Religion. Mus`ab b. `Umayr alighted at the house of As`ad b. Zarara. He went to the houses of the Ansar and invited them to Allah and recited the Qur’an to them and taught the Religion to those who accepted Islam…”[28]

فبعث رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم إلى المدينة مصعب بن عمير مع جماعة ، و ذلك أنهم كتبوا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يسألونه أن يبعث عليهم رجلاً من أصحابه يفقههم في الدين ، فنزب مصعب بن عمير على أسعد بن زرارة ، فكان يأتى به دور الأنصار فيدعوهم إلى الله و يقرأ عليهم القرآن ، و يفقه من كان منهم دخل في الإسلام

“[He was sent] to teach the Muslims in Yathrib the laws of Islam, to teach them about the Religion, to spread Islam amongst those who were still involved in idolatry. [The Prophet] chose [Mus`ab] as the ambassador – one of the youths of Islam from those who came first…”[29]

ليعلم المسلمين فيها شرائع الإسلام، ويفقههم في الدين، وليقوم بنشر الإسلام بين الذين لم يزالوا على الشرك، واختار لهذه السفارة شابًا من شباب الإسلام من السابقين الأولين

  • The Prophet dispatched Mus`ab toMedinaas his unique ambassador.
  • He was the first envoy/ambassador (safir) of the Prophet.

“The Messenger of Allah (saw) chose [Mus`ab b. `Umayr] on the one hand because he knew of his character and because of his nobility in Medinaon the other. It was also because [Mus`ab] memorised the Qur’an when it was revealed, he had elegance, skill, composure, the best morals, wisdom, a high position and excellence due to his strong belief and concern for the religion.”[30]

وقد اختاره رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن علم بشخصيته من جهة، وعلم بالوضع القائم في المدينة من جهة أخرى، حيث كان بجانب حفظه لما نزل من القرآن، يملك من اللباقة والهدوء، وحسن الخلق والحكمة، قدرًا كبيرًا، فضلاً عن قوة إيمانه, وشدة حماسه للدين

  • This means Mus`ab was:
    1. Extremely learned and knowledgeable of Islam.
    2. He was extremely intelligent.
    3. The most articulate.
    4. One with the best of conduct and morals.
    5. He was brave and one with wits about him.
    6. A political individual.[31]

“…and Mus`ab would teach those who embraced Islam and invite those who did not. He stayed at [the house of] As`ad b. Zurara in Medinareciting and teaching the Qur’an there as well as the laws and rulings of Islam. It is also said that he completed the first Friday prayer in Islam with them.”[32]

ومُصعب بن عُميْر يُعلّم مَنْ أسلم ويدعو إلى الله مَنْ لم يُسلم فنزل بالمدينة على أسعد بن زُرارة فكان يُقرئهم القرآن ويعلّمهم شرائع الإِسلام فقيل إنّه جمَّع بهم أول جُمعة ٍ جُمِّعت في الإِسلام

“Mus`ab b. `Umayr’s journey [to Medina] was successful. He explained and taught the new Religion, the Noble Qur’an and its explanation, he built strong bonds of brotherhood between the different Muslim factions and tribes and informed the Prophet (saw) and his companions in Mecca al-Mukarrama about the safe and secure leadership base for the launch of the Da`wa…”[33]

لقد نجحت سفارة مصعب بن عمير في شرح تعاليم الدين الجديد، وتعليم القرآن الكريم وتفسيره, وتقوية الروابط الأخوية بين أفراد القبائل المؤمنة من ناحية، وبين النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وصحبه بمكة المكرمة لإيجاد القاعدة الأمينة لانطلاق الدعوة.

“…and Mus`ab b. `Umayr came to the houses of the Ansar and stayed with them and assisted them and Islam spread throughout Medina. Thereafter, Allah gave permission for his Messenger (saw) to make the migration…”[34]

و مصعب بن عمير فقدموا على الأنصار في دورهم، فآوَوهم، ونصروهم، وفشا الإِسلامُ بالمدينة، ثم أَذِنَ الله لرسول الله صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ في الهجرة

“[Mus`ab] invited the people to Islam to the extent that there did not remain a house of the Ansar that did not have men or women that accepted Islam…”[35]

يدعو الناس إلى الإسلام، حتى لم تبق دار من دور الأنصار إلا وفيها رجال ونساء مسلمون

  • There, Mus`ab would teach the people about Islam.[36]
  • He converted a house into a thriving da`wa HQ.
  • He would contact influential individuals/groups and tribes and secure relationships with them.[37]
  • He converted the entire tribe of Banu `Abd al-Ashhal (men and women) to Islam.[38]
  • An instance of his power to convert and persuade is recorded by Ibn Ishaq:

“… on that day were two chiefs of the Banu `Abd al-Ashhal tribe who were polytheists like their people. When they heard of [Mus`ab] Sa`ad b. Mu`adh said to Usayd b. Hudayr: ‘Turn these two people[39] out who have come to our homes to dupe the weak amongst us? Prevent them from coming to our houses. If As`ad b. Zurara was not my relation, I would not have asked you to do that, but would have done it myself. He is the son of my aunt and I would not have found an excuse for him.’

Usayd b. Hudayr grabbed his spear and headed towards them both. When he was advancing, As`ad b. Zurara said to Mus`ab b. `Umayr: ‘This is the chief of his people coming towards you. May Allah put the truth in his [heart].’ Mus`ab said: ‘if he sits I will speak with him.’ [The chief] stopped when he came to them livid and rude saying: ‘why are you both here duping our weak? Get out of here if you think you are need of your life!’

To this Mus`ab replied [very gently]: ‘Please sit down and listen to us calmly. If you like what we say, then you may accept and if you do not like it, then that suffices you.”

Usayd stuck his spear in the ground and sat down to listen to them both. Mus`ab spoke to him about Islam and recited some verses of the Qur’an to him.[40] It was mentioned that both said: By Allah! We saw the acceptance of Islam on his face – radiant and soft – before even speaking!’ Usayd exclaimed: ‘What an excellent and beautiful word!’ What do you have to do to enter this Religion? They both replied: make ghusl, purify yourself, clean your dress and then pray…”[41]

… يومئذ سيدا قومهما من بنى عبد الأشهل ، وكلاهما مشرك على دين قومه ، فلما سمعا به قال سعد بن معاذ لأسيد بن حُضَير: لا أبا لك ، انطلق إلى هذين الرجلين اللذين قد أتيا داريْنا ليسفها ضعفاءنا، فازجرْهما وانههما عن أن يأتيا دارينا، فإنه لولا أن أسعد ابن زرارة منى حيث قد علمت كفيتك ذلك ، هو ابن خالتي ، ولا أجد عليه مقدما.

قال : فأخذ أسيد بن حُضَير حربته ثم أقبل إليهما؛ فلما رآه أسعد ابن زُرارة، قال لمصعب بن عمير: ،هذا سيد قومه قد جاءك ، فاصدق اللّه فيه؛ قال مصعب : إن يجلس أكلمْه . قال فوقف عليهما مُتشتِّما، فقال : ما جاء بكما إلينا تسفهان ضعفاءَنا؟ اعتزلانا إن كانت لكما بأنفسكما حاجة .

فقال له مصعب : أوَ تجلس فتسمع ، فإن رضيت أمراً قبلته، وإن كرهته كُف عنك ما تكره ؟

قال : أنصفت، ثم ركز حربته وجلس إليهما، فكلمه مُصْعَب بالإِسلام، وقرأ عليه القران؛ فقالا فيما يذكر عنهما: واللّه لعرفنا في وجهه الإسلامَ قبل أن يتكلم في إشراقه وتسهُّله ، ثم . قال : ما أحسن هذا الكلام وأجمله! كيف تصنعون إذا أردتم أن تدخلوا في هذا الدين ؟ قالا له : تغتسل فتطهَّر وتطهر ثوبيك، ثم تصلى

  • His style was soft and gentle.
  • He had extreme patience and endurance.
  • He had respect and knew how to conduct himself with notables.
  • Mus`ab would build a solid support base (‘public opinion’) for the Prophet inMedina.
  • He was preparing for the arrival of the Prophet to establish the Islamic authority/state there.
  • He was able to obtain leadership over the region.

“[Mus`ab] would lead them in prayer…”[42]

…كان ومُصعب بن عُميْر يؤمهم

 

“He was called in Medina‘The Qur’an Reciter’ (al-muqri’)…”[43]

إنما يسمى بالمدينة المقرىء

“…the first to conduct a congregation between them was Mus`ab b. `Umayr because he was of the first to migrate to Medinafrom amongst the Muhajirun …”[44]

أن أول من جمع بهم مصعب بن عمير، لأنه أول من قدم المدينة من المهاجرين

  • He was well-known meaning he carried the call everywhere.
  • He was highly esteemed known as ‘the reciter of the Qur’an’ for his beautiful and heart-melting recitation.
  • He was seen as a leader and settler of disputes as he led the Prayers amongst influential tribes.
  • He led the first Friday prayer by order of the Prophet and made Islam publicly popular such that there was not a house that did not have a Muslim member in it.[45]
  • He continued these intense activities constantly informing the Prophet of the progress.
  • After a long time, Mus`ab returned to the Prophet with 70 influential figures for the final arrangement for a migration toMecca.
  • These 70 individuals pledged to give material support (nusra) to the Prophet and protect the new Muslims that were to migrate toMedina. > This was the Second pledge of al-`Aqaba (known as the ‘Pledge of War’).
  • The Prophet migrated toMedina and established the Islamic state.

 d. Battle of Badr

  • A decisive battle.
  • Mus`ab showed his true commitment, understanding and love of the faith:

“Abu `Aziz b. `Umayr was the brother of Mus`ab b. `Umayr. He said: I was with a group of the Ansar when they captured me after the battle of Badr. When it came to the lunch and evening dinner times, they would give me bread and dates on of the Messenger of Allah’s command [ … ].”

My brother Mus`ab passed by me and a man from the Ansar holding me captive. He said to him: ‘tie his hands tightly. His mother is of great wealth and power. She may ransom him from you.’ `Abu `Aziz cried – as reported by Ibn Hisham – ‘o my brother! Is this your instruction concerning me?’ Mus`ab replied: ‘he is my brother and not you’…”[46]

وكان أبو عزيز بن عمير أخو مصعب بن عمير لأبيه وأمه في الأساري قال وكنت في رهط من الأنصار حين أقبلوا بي من بدر وكانوا إذا قدموا غداءهم وعشاءهم خصوني بالخبز وأكلوا التمر لوصية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إياهم بنا ما تقع في يد رجل منهم كسرة من الخبز إلا نفحني بها قال فأستحي فأردها عليه فيردها علي ما يمسها .

قال ومر بي أخي مصعب ورجل من الأنصار يأسرني فقال له شد يديك به فإن أمه ذات متاع لعلها تفديه منك فقال له أبو عزيز فيما ذكر ابن هشام يا أخي هذه وصاتك بي فقال له مصعب إنه أخي دونك فسألت أمه عن أغلى ما فدي به قرشي فقيل لها أربعة آلاف درهم فبعثت ففدته بها.

  • He shows the difference between belief and non-belief.
  • Brotherhood built on faith and belief – not merely filial ties.
  • Mus`ab was uncompromising.

 e. Martyrdom at Uhud

  • Mus`ab was the one honoured by the Prophet to carry the standard’ (al-liwa’) in the battles.
  • He had general like qualities.
  • He was blessed with features like the Prophet.
  • Hence, when the Prophet was being directly attacked, Mus`ab defended him:

“Mus`ab b. `Umayr carried the standard on the Day of Uhud. When the Muslims were scattered, he stood firm and strong until he met lbn Qumay’a who was a Persian warrior. He struck him on his right hand and cut it off, but Mus`ab said, (and Muhammad is but a Messenger. Messengers have passed away before him [Q. 3:144]). He carried the standard with his left hand and leaned on it. [Ibn Qumay’a] struck his left hand and cut it off, and so he leaned on the standard and held it with his upper arms to his chest, all the while saying, (and Muhammad is but a Messenger. Messengers have passed away before him [Q. 3:144]). Then a third one struck him with his spear and the spear went through him. Mus`ab fell and then the standard…

[ … ] The verse (and Muhammad is but a Messenger. Messengers have passed away before him [Q. 3:144]) was revealed on that day after [Mus`ab] had uttered it.”[47]

حمل مصعب بن عمير اللواء يوم أحد فلما جال المسلمون ثبت به مصعب فأقبل بن قميئة وهو فارس فضرب يده اليمنى فقطعها ومصعب يقول وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل الآية وأخذ اللواء بيده اليسرى وحنا عليه فضرب يده اليسرى فقطعها فحنا على اللواء وضمه بعضديه إلى صدره وهو يقول وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل الآية ثم حمل عليه الثالثة بالرمح فأنفذه واندق الرمح ووقع مصعب وسقط اللواء […]

نزلت هذه الآية وما محمد إلا رسول قد خلت من قبله الرسل يومئذ حتى نزلت بعد ذلك.

“Mus`ab b. `Umayr fought with ferocious bravery and valour defending the Prophet against the assaults and onslaught of Ibn Qam’a [al-Laythi] and his soldiers. The Standard was in his hand. [Qam’a] struck his right arm and it fell. [Mus`ab] picked the Standard up in his left hand. He stood in the face of the disbelievers until his left arm was cut off. His chest [was speared] and his neck [was struck] and fell to the ground martyred. Ibn Qam’a was the one who killed him thinking he was the Prophet – because he resembled him. Ibn Qam’a turned to the polytheists crying out: ‘Muhammad is killed!’”[48]

وقاتل مصعب بن عمير بضراوة بالغة، يدافع عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هجوم ابن قمئة وأصحابه، وكان اللواء بيده، فضربوه على يده اليمنى حتى قطعت، فأخذ اللواء بيده اليسرى، وصمد في وجوه الكفار حتى قطعت يده اليسرى، ثم برك عليه بصدره وعنقه حتى قتل، وكان الذي قتله هو ابن قمئة، وهو يظنه رسول الله ـ لشبهه به ـ فانصرف ابن قمئة إلى المشركين، وصاح: إن محمدًا قد قتل.

  • Mus`ab embodied the dignity of the Religion.
  • He showed unparalleled bravery in keeping the Standard alive.
  • He defended the Prophet literally with his life.
  • At each chop of his arm, he recited the verse out of true understanding of the Religion that the Message will reign supreme even if the Prophet is killed.
  • The Message will live and endure.

 e. Legacy and Position (manaqib): 

  • Mus`ab left nothing but a tattered robe behind.
  • But he was the one who laid the foundation for the establishment of the Islamic state.
  • Some narrations mention the following:

“From Abu Dharr (ra): When the battle of Uhud was over, the Prophet passed by the slain body of Mus`ab al-Ansari strewn on the floor. He began to recite the verse: (And of the believers are men who have been true to their covenant made with Allah… [Q. 33:23]).”[49]

حدثني محمد بن صالح بن هانئ ثنا يحيى بن محمد بن يحيى الشهيد ثنا عبد الله بن عبد الوهاب الحجبي ثنا حاتم بن إسماعيل عن عبد الأعلى بن عبد الله بن أبي فروة عن قطن بن وهيب عن عبيد بن عمير عن أبي ذر رضى الله تعالى عنه قال: لما فرغ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يوم أحد مر على مصعب الأنصاري مقتولا على طريقة فقرأ من المؤمنين رجال صدقوا ما عاهدوا الله عليه. هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه.

“Khabbab [b. al-`Arat] said: We emigrated with the Prophet for Allah’s cause, so our reward became due with Allah. Some of us passed away without enjoying anything in this life of His reward [and of them was Mus`ab b. `Umayr, who was martyred on the Day of Uhud]. He did not leave behind anything except a sheet of shredded woolen cloth. If we covered his feet with it, his head was uncovered, and if we covered his feet with it, his head was uncovered. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said to us: ‘Cover his head with it and put lemon grass over his feet’.”[50]

حدثنا محمود بن غيلان، أخبرنا أبو أحمد، أخبرنا سفيان عن الأعمش عن أبي وائل عن خباب قال:
– “هاجرنا مع النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم نبتغي وجه الله، فوقع أجرنا على الله، فمنا من مات لم يأكل من أجره شيء، ومنا من أينعت له ثمرته فهو يهديها، وإن مصعب بن عمير مات ولم يترك الا ثوبا كانوا إذا غطوا به رأسه خرجت رجلاه. وإذا غطوا به رجليه خرج رأسه، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: غطوا رأسه واجعلوا على رجليه الاذخر“. هذا حديث حسن صحيح
.

“The Messenger of Allah stopped by [the body of] Mus`ab b. `Umayr. He was struck down on the day of Uhud being martyred. He was the Standard bearer of the Messenger of Allah (saw). He (saw) then recited: (And of the believers are men who have been true to their covenant made with Allah… [Q. 33:23]).”[51]

وقف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم على مصعب بن عمير وقد سقط على وجهه يوم أحد شهيدا وكان صاحب لواء رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال عليه السلام : {رجال صدقوا ما عاهدوا الله عليه فمنهم من قضى نحبه ومنهم من ينتظر} [الأحزاب : 23] .

“`Abd al-Rahman b. `Awf came and he was fasting from food when he began to cry saying: Hamza was killed and nothing but a shroud was available to cover him and Mus`ab b. `Umayr too was killed and nothing but a shroud was available to cover him. I had feared that perhaps all the good in our worldly lives had hastened. He then began crying again.”[52]

أخبرنا محمد بن إسحاق بن سعيد السعدي حدثنا حماد بن الحسن بن عنبسة حدثنا أبو داود الطيالسي حدثنا شعبة عن سعد بن إبراهيم قال سمعت أبي يقول أتي عبد الرحمن بن عوف وكان صائما بطعام فجعل يبكي فقال قتل حمزة فلم يوجد ما يكفن فيه إلا ثوب واحد وقتل مصعب بن عمير فلم يوجد ما يكفن فيه إلا ثوب واحد ولقد خشيت أن تكون قد عجلت طيباتنا في حياتنا الدنيا قال وجعل يبكي.

“The Messenger of Allah looked at Mus`ab b. `Umayr… he said (saw): ‘I saw him brought up by his parents with the finest food and drink and I saw him in the most finest of things or those bought with two hundred dirhams; but the love of Allah and His Messenger called him to what you see before you.”[53]

نظر رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إلى مصعب بن عمير مقبلا عليه إهاب كبش قد تنطق به فقال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم انظروا إلى هذا الذي نور الله قلبه! لقد رأيته بين أبوين يغذونه بأطيب الطعام والشراب ولقد رأيت عليه حلة شراها أو شريت بمائتي درهم فدعاه حب الله وحب رسوله إلى ما ترون.

“[ … ] Mus`ab b. `Umayr came to us wearing a shroud (burda) that had discernable fur on it. He used to be the most blessed boy in Mecca who lived the most luxurious life but when the Prophet (saw) saw him, he recounted all those blessings [Mus`ab] had and up[on seeing him now in his present condition brought tears down his eyes and he began crying…”[54]

خرجت في غداة شاتية ، وقد أوبقني البرد فأخذت ثوبا من صوف كان عندنا، ثم أدخلته في عنقي، وحزمته على صدري أستدفئ به ، والله ما في بيتي شيء آكل منه ، ولو كان في بيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم شيء لبلغني ، فخرجت في بعض نواحي المدينة ، فانطلقت إلى يهودي في حائط فاطلعت عليه من ثغرة في جداره، فقال : ما لك يا أعرابي ؟ هل لك في دلو بتمرة ؟ قلت : نعم، افتح لي الحائط، ففتح لي فدخلت فجعلت أنزع الدلو ويعطيني تمرة حتى ملأت كفي، قلت : حسبي منك الآن، فأكلتهن، ثم جرعت من الماء، ثم جئت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، فجلست إليه في المسجد، وهو مع عصابة من أصحابه، فطلع علينا مصعب بن عمير في بردة له مرفوعة بفروة، وكان أنعم غلام بمكة، وأرهفه عيشا، فلما رآه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ذكر ما كان فيه من النعيم، ورأى حاله التي هو عليها، فذرفت عيناه فبكى، ثم قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : أنتم اليوم خير أم إذا غدي على أحدكم بجفنة من خبز ولحم، وريح عليه بأخرى، غدا في حلة، وراح في أخرى، وسترتم بيوتكم كما تستر الكعبة ؟  قلنا : بل يومئذ خير نتفرغ للعبادة . قال : بل أنتم اليوم خير.

 

“The Prophet (saw) passed by [the body] of Mus`ab b. `Umayr when he returned to Uhud and said to [Mus`ab] and his other Companions: ‘I bear witness that you are alive with Allah; so visit them and impart greetings to them. By him in whose hand is my soul none sends greetings to them except that will return that greeting on the day of Judgment’.”[55]

مر النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم على مصعب بن عمير حين رجع من أحد فوقف عليه وعلى أصحابه فقال أشهد أنكم أحياء عند الله فزوروهم وسلموا عليهم فوالذي نفسي بيده لا يسلم عليهم أحد إلا ردوا عليه إلى يوم القيامة.

Some lessons

  • The Prophet (saw) engaged in political work.
  • He used an individual to create public opinion.
  • The work of establishing the Islamic state requires sacrifice.
  • It may require sacrificing everything.
  • Including one’s life.

Internet resources:

  1. “Mus`ab ibn `Umayr: Matchless Ambassador” at <http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1209357792628&pagename=Zone-English-Living_Shariah%2FLSELayout&gt;.
  2. “Mus`ab ibn `Umayr: The First Ambassador of Islam” at <http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&cid=1154235110423&pagename=Zone-English-Discover_Islam%2FDIELayout&gt;.
  3. “Mus`ab ibn `Umair” at <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mus%60ab_ibn_%60Umair&gt;.
  4. “Mus`ab ibn `Umayr, richest young man” at <http://www.bt.com.bn/en/classification/life/features/2007/06/08/musab_ibn_umayr_richest_young_man&gt;.
  5. “Mus`ab ibn `Umair – The First Envoy of Islam” at http://islamworld.net/docs/musab.html
  6. Of Malls and Mus`ab bin `Umair” at http://themuslimyouth.wordpress.com/2007/06/11/of-malls-and mus%E2%80%99ab-bin-%E2%80%98umair/.

s.z.c.

peace and blessings upon our beloved Prophet,

whose teachings made men and women into

guiding stars for humanity. 


[1] That which is the brackets ‘[ … ]’ is from Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[2] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473 and Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba, 6:123.

[3] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:66.

[4] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473.

[5] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473.

[6] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[7] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473.

[8] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473.

[9] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473.

[10] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1473 and al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak `ala ’l-Sahihayn, §Manaqib Mus`ab Ibn `Khayr, hadith no. 4904.

[11] Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba, 6:123.

[12] Ibn Ishaq, Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:155.

[13] Khaled, al-Rijal Hawl al-Rasul, p.2.

[14] Khaled, al-Rijal Hawl al-Rasul, pp.2-3.

[15] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[16] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1474; Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190, and Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba, 6:123.

[17] Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Isti`ab fi Ma`rifat al-Ashab, 4:1474.

[18] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[19] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[20] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:68.

[21] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:68 and Khaled, al-Rijal Hawl al-Rasul, p.5.

[22] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:68 and Khaled, al-Rijal Hawl al-Rasul, p.5.

[23] al-Mubarakfuri, al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, p.90.

[24] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:67 and Khaled, al-Rijal Hawl al-Rasul, p.5.

[25] Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Isaba fi Tamyiz al-Sahaba, 3:421.

[26] M. Sallabi, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:204.

[27] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:190.

[28] Ibn Hibban, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya wa Akhbar al-Khulafa’, p.37.

[29] al-Mubarakfuri, al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, pp.139-140.

[30] M. Sallabi, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:330.

[31] The Prophet would only send the best and finest for a serious objective and agenda. Why would he send anyone less when the future of Islam depended on it?

[32] Ibn Kathir, al-Fusul fi Ikhtisar Sirat al-Rasul, p.93 and al-Kattani, Mukhtasar al-Kabir fi Sirat al-Rasul, p.11.

[33] M. Sallabi, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:330.

[34] Ibn al-Qayyim, Zad al-Masir, 1:101.

[35] Ibn Ishaq, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya.

[36] al-Sakhawi, al-Ajwiba al-Mardiyya, 2:701-702 and Shaykh al-Khidri, Nur al-Yaqin fi Sirat Sayyid al-Mursalin, p.38.

[37] Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:76.

[38] Ibn Kathir, al-Fusul fi Ikhtisar Sirat al-Rasul, p.93 and al-Kattani, Mukhtasar al-Kabir fi Sirat al-Rasul, p.13.

[39] Meaning Mus`ab b. `Umayr and As`ad b. Zurara.

[40] Which was surat al-Zukhruf.

[41] Ibn Ishaq, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya; and bn Hibban, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya wa Akhbar al-Khulafa’, pp.38-39.

[42] Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:76 and Ibn Kathir, al-Fusul fi Ikhtisar Sirat al-Rasul, p.93.

[43] Ibn al-Athir, Usd al-Ghaba fi Ma`rifat al-Sahaba, 5:191 and al-Suhayli, Rawd al-Anif,4:51.

[44] al-Suhayli, Rawd al-Anif,4:54.

[45] Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya, 1:80.

[46] Al-Andalusi, al-Iktifa’ bi-ma Tudamminuhu Maghazi Rasul Allah wa Thalathat al-Khulafa’,2:28.

[47] Ibn Sa`d, al-Tabaqat al-Kubra, 3:69.

[48] al-Mubarakfuri, al-Rahiq al-Makhtum, p.244. See also Ibn Hibban, al-Sira al-Nabawiyya wa Akhbar al-Khulafa’, p.39.

[49] al-Hakim, al-Mustadrak `ala ’l-Sahihayn, §Manaqib Mus`ab Ibn `Khayr, hadith no. 4905.

[50] See al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, hadith no.3943-3944.

[51] al-`Iraqi, al-Mughni `an al-Asfar, 5:120. 

[52] al-Bukhari, al-Sahih, hadith no.1274-1276.

[53] al-Mundhiri, al-Targhib wa’l-Tarhib, 3:148 (with an isnad that is either sahih or hasan or near to both) and al-`Iraqi, al-Mughni `an al-Asfar, 5:4.

[54] al-Mundhiri, al-Targhib wa’l-Tarhib, 3:147 and 4:181.

[55] al-Haythami, Majma` al-Zawa’id, 3:63.

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