Usul al-Fiqh

Imam Ibn al-Arabi_Ijtihad and Taqlid

Ijtihad and Taqlid_Ibn al-`Arabi

Imam al-Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn al-`Arabi writes in book on Usul al-Fiqh:[1]

كتاب الاجتهاد

فيه ثلاث فصول

الفصل الأول : في حقيقتهة :

وهي بذل الجهد واستنفاذ الوسع في طلب الصواب[2] افتعال من الجهد كما تقول استداد من السداد ونحوه

الفصل الثاني : في المطلوب به :

اختلف الناس فيه فمنهم من قال المطلوب حكم الله ومنهم من قال حكم الله يمكن الوصول إليه فالمطلوب هو الأشبه من الأصلين ومنهم من قال المطلوب رجحان الظن[3] وهذا هو الصحيح لأن حكم الله يعثر عليه والأشبه قد لا يوصل إليه العوائق في النظر فأما الانتهاء إلى درجة تغلب على الظن فيها المطلوب فهو ممكن .

الفصل الثالث : في تصويب المجتهدين:

وقد اختلف الناس فيه اختلافا متبابنا عمدته أن قوما قالوا إن كل مجتهد في الفروع مصيب وهو قول العلماء ومنهم من قال الحق في قول بعضهم وإليه يميل الضعفاء بجهلهم بالطريقة والصحيح كل مجتهد مصيب واحتج من قال الحق في قول أحدهما بأن النازلة إذا وقعت وقال أحد المجتهدين هي حلال وقال الآخر هي حرام فلا يجوز أن يكونا مصيبين لأن ذلك يؤدي إلى محال[4] وهو اجتماع التحليل والتحريم في عين واحدة[5] وهذه عمدتهم التي يعتمدون قوتها وهي لا تساوي أن تسمع  

والجواب عنها أن نقول الدليل في المسألة ما قدمناه في أول الكتاب أن التحليل والتحريم ليسا بصفات للمحللات ولا للمحرمات وإنما هي عبارات عن قول الشارع فيما شرع[6] وعن قول المفتي فيما أفتى وذلك كالنبوة ليست بصفة ذاتية للنبي وإنما هي عبارة عن مكاشفته بالوحي فإذا أدى الناظر النظر إلى تحليل عين لم يتعلق بالعين من ذلك وصف وه مطلوب بالعمل باجتهاد وبما أدى إليه نظره وإن نظر آخر فأداه نظره إلى التحريم عمل أيضا على مقتضى اجتهاده ولم يتعلق بالعين من قوله شيء فإن قيل كيف يصنع المقلد وقد اختلفا عليه قلنا سيأتي الجواب عن ذلك إن شاء الله تعالى .

كتاب التقليد

وفيه خمسة فصول

الفصل الأول: في حقيقة التقليد :

قال قوم هو قبول القول من غير حجة[7] وقال آخرون هو القبول من غير حجة فلا يصح لأنه لولا قيام الحجة على الالتزام لذلك لما لزم ولا قبل لأن الأقوال مع عدم الحجة سواء .

الفصل الثاني :

قال القاضي لا تقليد بحال ولا يحل لأحد أن يقلد أحدا[8] و قال سائر العلماء بصحة التقليد لمن عجز عن النظر[9] ولا يظن بالقاضي لعظم منصبه الغفلة عن هذا المقال وإنما انتحى أمرا يأتي بيانه في الفصل الذي بعده وهو ما يجب على المقلد .

الفصل الثالث: ما يجب على المقلد :

قال علماؤنا الذي يجب على المقلد يرى أنه إذا عجز عن النظر في دليل الأحكام أن يسأل اعلم أهل زمانه فما افتاه به وجب عليه العمل به وبأي شيء يعلم أنه أعلم قال الأستاذ بالخبر المتواتر وهو ضعيف وإنما يكفي أن يعديه عنده رجلا ن فإذا قال له هو أنا عالم قال بعض الناس يعمل على قوله والصحيح أن يعمل على قول من يشتهر ذلك عليه فأما البلوغ إلى حد التواتر فلا يلزم ذلك .

الفصل الرابع :

لا يجوز لمن قدر على النظر[10] أن يقلد عالما وقال بعض الناس يجوز للعالم أن يقلد عالما كما يقلده في القبلة وهو ضعيف فإن العمل بالقبلة ليس من باب التقليد[11] وإنما هو من باب سماع الخبر وقبوله[12] فأما إن خاف العالم الفوت فهل يجوز له أن يقلد العالم اختلف الناس فيه وهي مسألة اجتهادية والصحيح عندي جوازه لأن ما يقتحم في التقليد من الخطأ أيسر من اقتحام فوت الوقت .

الفصل الخامس :

هل يتكرر سؤال المقلد على العالم بتكرير النازلة الاختلاف بين العلماء فمنهم من قال يتكرر لجواز اختلاف جواب العالم باختلاف اجتهاده ومنهم من قال لا يتكرر وإن جاز اختلاف الجواب كما كان لا يلزم تكرار السؤال على النبي وإن جاز اختلاف الجواب بالنسخ والصحيح وجوب التكرار لأن العالم إذا تغير اجتهاده لا يلزمه أن يقول للناس تغير اجتهادي عما تعلمون والنبي إذا طرى عليه النسخ يلزمه أن يقول تغير من حكم الله تعالى كذا . والله أعلم وأحكم . 

 

Notes

  • Imam al-Qadi Abu Bakr remarks that the property of being either ‘lawful/permitted’ (tahlil) or ‘unlawful/impermissible’ (tahrim) is not intrinsic or essential to the things they predicate.
  • The property of being either ‘lawful/permitted’ (tahlil) or ‘unlawful/impermissible’ (tahrim) are simply ‘terms’ or ‘expressions’ (`ibarat) reflective of what is legislated.
  • Thus, for example, the property of possessing ‘prophethood’ (nabuwwah) is not an essential property of the Prophet (saw) but a term or expression of the direct unveiling of revelation to him. To elucidate this point, consider:

For any individual, x and property, P, P is an essential property of x iff: 

  1. Without P, x would cease to exist.
  2. P is something x has always possessed (i.e. whenever x exists, x does not fail to possess P).
  • It would not be true to say that the Prophet did not exist before being bestowed the honour of climactic Prophethood.

 

Ijtihad and the Mujtahid

  • Linguistically, ijtihad it means “exerting utmost effort” (istifragh al-wus`) to realise and obtain something leading to inconvenience (kulfah) and hardship (mashaqqa).[13]
  • Technically, it means: expending one’s utmost effort in seeking the opinion in something related to the Islamic rulings (al-ahkam al-shar`iyyah) such that one feels unable to exert any further.[14]
  • A mujtahid is one who is ascribed with the ability of ijtihad (this is what it means to be one by definition) and has to fulfil two main epistemological conditions (shartan):[15]

1. The mujtahid must know as much as is required and suitable (munasib) in the Arabic language, e.g.

  1. Grammar.
  2. Syntax.
  3. Rhetoric and stylistics (al-balaghah).
  4. Designation of the words.
  5. Indications (al-dalalat).
  6. Literal and metaphorical (haqiqi wa majazi).
  7. Synonyms.
  8. Other areas related to the language (= al-lughawiyyah)…[16]

2. The mujtahid must know the concepts related to the Islamic rulings (al-ahkam al-shar`iyyah), e.g.

  1. Its types (aqsamuha).
  2. How they are established and derived (istinbatuha).
  3. How to outweigh them (tarjihuha).
  4. ‘Occasions of revelations’ (asbab al-nuzul).
  5. Names and grades of transmitters (al-jarh wa ’l-ta`dil).
  6. Abrogation (al-nasikh wa ’l-mansukh).
  7. Other things related to the kitab and Sunnah (= shar`iyyah)…[17]
  • Grades of a Mujtahid:

1) mujtahid mutlaq (‘the absolute mujtahid’). > He/she uses a self-delineated theoretical methodology (usul). > He/she can formulate principles (qawa`id). He/she has the potential (imkaniyyah) to derive rulings in all areas (jami` masa’il al-fiqh)[18] with general methodological principles in a general and comprehensive way. In a general way then:

  • A mujtahid mutlaq must have knowledge of the Shari`ah aims (maqasid al-shari`ah) through understanding the textual evidences.[19]
  • A mujtahid mutlaq must have knowledge of the indications, words, styles, and statements of the Arabic language.[20]

2) mujtahid al-madhhab (‘the mujtahid of a legal school’). He/she follows the mujtahid mutlaq in both the essentials and the branches (usul wa furu`). > He/she adopts the methodology of a mujtahid mutlaq and derives new rulings by that. > He/she does not do taqlid to the Imam of the legal school and may differ with the Imam. > He/she does not merely adopt doctrine or juristic output within the legal school.[21]

3) mujtahid al-mas’alah (‘the mujtahid of a legal case’). > He/she has mastery and a correct grasp in one legal case (mas’alah min al-masa’il). > He/she adopts or follows another mujtahid in other legal cases and matters but not on the case he/she has derived.[22]

  • A mutahid may not follow the ijtihad of another[23] unless:
  1. The imam/khalifah makes an absolute adoption.
  2. If the mujtahid feels another is more learned than him/her in all the minutiae.
  3. If the mujtahid finds that his ijtihad is far outweighed in evidential strength by another.[24]
  4. When a matter is for the general interest and benefit for the Muslims.
  • A mujtahid is bound by his own ijtihad.
  • A mujtahid does not have to do ijtihad on all previous areas in which ijtihad had already been done. He may adopt on earlier rulings.

 

  • Ijtihad is not merely applying a ruling to a particular case the ruling actually applies to (tatbiq al-hukm `ala ’l-masa’il allati tandariju tahtahu).[25]
  • Ijtihad is not applying a ruling to a new object or situation that falls under the meaning or scope of the existing ruling.
  • Ijtihad is the derivation of a ruling for the particular case.
  • Three things must be involved before an action can be called an ‘ijtihad’ type: 
  1. Ijtihad must involve one’s utmost effort (aqsa juhd).
  2. Ijtihad must involve seeking the opinion in something related to the Islamic rulings (al-ahkam al-shar`iyyah) such that one feels unable to exert any further.[26]
  3. Ijtihad must involve the Islamic texts (follows from 2).[27]
  • Ijtihad is not mere personal opinion of an individual (ra’y `indahu); it is the understanding (fahm) of the individual from the requisite texts.
  • Ijtihad is not simply a peak at the text of Qur’an or hadith (i.e. a browse through it) but a serious engagement and deep and critical analysis and study to uncover the ruling.
  • Ijtihad is only related to Islamic rulings (ahkam shar`iyyah).
  • Ijtihad is only in the speculative aspects (dalil zanni) and not the definitive areas (dalil qat`i).[28]
  • Ijtihad is not related to matters of `aqidah[29] (e.g. creedal formulation or articles of creed).[30]

Consider the following reasoning:

  1. The `aqidah is only established on definitive evidences (dalil qat`iy)/aspects.
  2. Ijtihad by definition operates on non-definitive evidences/aspects.

______________________

  1. Therefore, ijtihad cannot operate on `aqidah.
  • Ijtihad is a collective obligation (fard `ala ’l-kifayah).[31]
  • There must not be an age without a mujtahid otherwise the Muslims will be sinful. > Someone must exist who is capable of deriving the ruling (hukm) for a new situation. > Thus ijtihad is a duty on those who are able (`ala’ l-qadirina) in any given age.
  • The need – or necessity – for ijtihad arises from two main reasons:

 

  1. Textual: Texts have not come in a detailed nature (mufassalah) nor have detailed texts encompassed all areas of a legal issue or legal topic.[32]
  2. Non-textual: New realities in life (al-waqa’i` al-hayatiyyah) require rulings for them as well as the applications of the rulings to solve that issue(s).
  • A ruling is strictly connected to the necessity of it being implemented.
  • The discussion of ijtihad required for new problems and situations is subsumed under the legal principle of: ما لا يتم الوجب إلا به فهو واجب/ma la yutimma al-wajib illa bi-hi fa huwa wajib – that by which an obligation cannot be established, itself becomes an obligation.’ Consider:
  1. In order to establish a duty, D, other requirements x and y are necessary.[33]

______________________

  1. Therefore, other requirements x and y themselves become a duty.
  • Consider the following argument:
  1. It is obligatory to rule by what Allah has revealed.[34]
  2. Allah’s rulings have to be implemented (tatbiq).
  3. Allah’s rulings have to be implemented for new realities not previously found in the texts.

1, 2 and 3 are all obligatory (wajib).

  1. Therefore, for 3 to be possible, ijtihad is necessary.
  2. Therefore, based on the principle ma la yutimma al-wajib illa bi-hi fa huwa wajib (‘that by which an obligation cannot be established, itself becomes an obligation’), ijtihad itself becomes obligatory (i.e. a wajib).[35]

 

  1. Initially, the Qur’anic injunctions order all Muslims to follow what Allah has revealed.

From 1, the duty from the order is that of an individual obligation (fard al-`ayn).

  1. This order to follow what Allah has revealed requires understanding what was revealed.
  2. Understanding what Allah has revealed is what is termed ijtihad (i.e. deriving the ruling from the text).

If 1 and 2, then:

  1. All Muslims are required to do ijtihad themselves which means understanding what was revealed and deriving the ruling from the text by each and every person.

But 4 is not possible for everyone because of differing levels and degrees of understandings, comprehensions, skill, knowledge, intelligence, etc.

Therefore:

  1. Only some Muslims are required to do ijtihad themselves which means understanding what was revealed and deriving the ruling from the text.

From 5, it follows that:

  1. There must be mujtahid (at least one) amongst the Muslims who can understand what was revealed and derive the ruling from the text (= a mujtahid).[36]

 

Ijtihad and Taqlid

  • Linguistically: taqlid means taking something without thinking or pondering over it.[37]
  • Technically: it means acting on the opinion of someone without binding evidence (bi-ghayri hujjah mulzimah).[38]
  • Taqlid in rulings (ahkam) is permitted[39] but not so for creedal and doctrinal matters.[40]
  • Taqlid is a reality. If one cannot derive the rulings directly from the textual sources, he/she must seek it from someone who can.
  • Taqlid is not the norm because it implies ignorance and lack of knowledge.
  • Referring back to the Prophet’s sunnah or the consensus of the Companions is not termed taqlid because they are independent categories of evidence (adillah mustaqillah).[41]
  • Following a mufti’s fatwa is not termed ‘adopting’ (akdh, i.e. taqlid).[42]
  • The one unable to perform ijtihad (i.e. the non-mujtahid = a muqallid) divides into two types: 
  1. Al-Muttabi`:[43] one who knows some of the relevant and required knowledge required for deriving rulings but does not have the ability to actually perform ijtihad. > Such a person must seek to understand the evidences presented by a mujtahid when he/she seeks a ruling.
  2. Al-Ummi: one who has no relevant and required knowledge and merely asks a knowledgeable person for a ruling as to whether something is permitted (halal) or not (haram), i.e. ‘is x allowed or not?’

 

  • A muqallid may not discard his/her adoption of a ruling in a particular legal case (mas’alah) for another ruling if he/she is acting on that ruling. There are two notions here:
  1. A mas’alah (= ‘legal case’) as far as the discussion of taqlid is concerned, is that action which does not depend upon something else for its validity, e.g. Prayer, fasting, etc…
  2. A juz’ al-mas’alah (= ‘particulars of a legal case’) is that aspect, pillar (rukn) or condition (shart) without which an action would not be valid.

Thus, if a muqallid follows a mujtahid in a mas’alah (as defined above), he/she will have to follow all particulars (ajza’) related to that mas’alah, e.g. Salah (prayer) to which is related:

  1. Wudu’. 
  2. Intention (niyyah),
  3. Full bath (ghusl),
  4. Dry ablution (tayammum),
  5. Direction of Qiblah,
  6. Other required pillars (arkan), etc…[44]
  • If a muqallid has not yet acted on the ijtihad of a mutjahid, he/she can change adoption if it is based on correct evaluation (tarjih = see below).
  • A muqallid may not choose/merely prefer a ruling in a particular legal case if there happens to be a difference (khilaf) in the ruling/ijtihad of two mujtahids. What he/she must do in order to decide which opinion to follows is to generally either: i) find out who is more knowledgeable (a`lamu), wiser, just, has upright character and probity (`adalah) as generally held and ii) which of the two opinions he/she understands better.[45] Therefore, the muqalllid weighs between the information he/she has about a mujtahid.
  • More specifically, each condition and circumstance of the muqallid has to be taken into account in order to make a preference.
  • A muqallid may not follow a ruling(s) based on desire (hawa wa shahwah) and clear personal benefit (maslahah zahirah).[46]
  • A muqallid may not follow a ruling(s) based on picking and choosing from madhhabs.
  • A muqallid may not follow a ruling(s) based on what the easiest opinions in the madhahbs are.[47]
  • A muqallid may follow an opinion of a mujtahid if it is established to be so.
  • A muqallid may teach others the ruling he/she learnt for others to act on it provided he/she has understood it.

Ijtihad today

  • The door of ijtihad is not closed and in reality never was.
  • Ijtihad does not – indeed cannot – be abandoned for heavy reform (islah).
  • Reform implies Islam is unable to offer solutions, is not relevant, is incapable of absorbing and solving challenges, new realities, conditions, etc.
  • The conditions of a mujtahid are not that a person has to be like Imam al-A`zam Abu Hanifah, or Malik, Shafi`i or Ahmad, etc. i.e. either linguistic masters, huffaz [hakim, amir al-mu’minin…] in hadith (= someone who has memorised from 60,000 to 1 million (!) Prophetic narrations), a judge, etc. By making the conditions impossible, people make ijtihad totally unrealistic. This is a false impression.
  • Ijtihad is not one’s personal understanding and analysis or ‘study’ (i.e. it is not one’s ‘thesis’) of verses or hadith. This is misusing the linguistic and technical/legal meaning of the term defined by classical jurists.
  • Divorcing ijtihad from its legal sense and legislative context and process removes the emphasis on Islam as solution-providing.
  • Ijtihad is the hukm of Allah on a particular issue ‘dug out’ by the mujtahid after serious study and effort of the evidences. Hence, it is not the personal output of a jurist or something plucked from his/her own mind.
  • Ijtihad is Islam’s ‘arm of extension’ into any age. It is that by which Islam reaches all times and ages and remains fresh and relevant.
S. Z. C.

[1] See Ibn al-`Arabi, Kitab Usul al-Fiqh, pp.78-80.

[2]  وهي بذل الجهد واستنفاذ الوسع في طلب الصواب – “exerting effort as well as expending all endeavour to seek the truth…”

[3] ومنهم من قال المطلوب رجحان الظن – “and one of the [views] is that what is required is the most likely opinion…”

[4] محال– ”impossibility”.

[5] وهو اجتماع التحليل والتحريم في عين واحدة – “…and that is combining the attribute of halal and haram, simultaneously to one [and the same] thing…”

[6] أن التحليل والتحريم ليسا بصفات للمحللات ولا للمحرمات وإنما هي عبارات عن قول الشارع فيما شرع – “…that permissibility or impermissibility are not properties of permitted things or unlawful things; they are only expressions of the Legislator’s statement regarding what He legislated…”

[7]  قال قوم هو قبول القول من غير حجة – “a group of [scholars] said it is to accept an opinion without proof…”

[8]  قال القاضي لا تقليد بحال ولا يحل لأحد أن يقلد أحدا – “al-Qadi said that there is no taqlid in status nor is it permitted for anyone to make taqlid to an individual (i.e. their personality)…”

[9]عجز عن النظر – “unable to investigate [into the ruling and its evidences]…”

[10] قدر على النظر – “able to investigate [into the ruling and its evidences]…”

[11] فإن العمل بالقبلة ليس من باب التقليد – “acting [on being told where the direction of] the Qiblah is not taqlid…” This is because ascertaining the direction of Qiblah is not a process that involves deriving a ruling from the evidences but knowing a particular ruling (praying in the direction of Mecca) and applying that ruling to a specific situation (determining the direction of Mecca).

[12] من باب سماع الخبر وقبوله – “it related to merely hearing a report and accepting it…”

[13] See Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:198.

[14] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:198 & 207. See also al-Amidi, al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam, 4:162; al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, p.250 and cf. Abu Zahra, Usul al-Fiqh, p.301.

[15] For full conditions of a mujtahid, see Abu’ l-Husayn al-Basri, al-Mu`tamad fi Usul al-Fiqh, 2:929-932 and al-Shirazi, Sharh al-Luma`, 2:1031-1035.

[16] See al-Shatibi, al-Muwafaqat, 4:6, al-Ghazzali, al-Mustasfa min `Ilm al-Usul, 2:102 and Abu Zahra, Usul al-Fiqh, p.304.

[17] See al-Ghazzali, al-Mustasfa, 2:101 and al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, pp.250-251.

[18] Cf. al-Amidi, al-Ihkam, 4:206. Although this does not mean that the mujtahid has knowledge of all ahkams or that he/she actually has to derive rulings for all areas. Both are impossible anyway.

[19] al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, p.252 and Abu Zahra, Usul al-Fiqh, p.307.

[20] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:215-216. cf. al-Shatibi’s al-Muwafaqat, 4:56.

[21] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:210.

[22] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:212-213.

[23] See al-Baji, Ihkam al-Fusul fi Ahkam al-Usul, p.723ff.

[24] al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:221-224 and `Ata’ Ibn Khalil, Taysir al-Wusul ila ’l-Usul, pp.263-264.

[25] This is related to the section of al-Qada’ (‘Legal judgment’); al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:202.

[26] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:207.

[27] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:207.

[28] Because definitive texts ab initio preclude any additional or further interpretation. Cf. al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, p.250.

[29] The term `aqidah as defined by the Usuliyyun (‘legal theoreticians’).

[30] See al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul, p.253. Hence, we may not say that a mujtahid if he/she errs (akhta’a) in doing ijtihad on creedal matters (`aqa’id) that they will get one reward (ajar) because to do such an ‘ijtihad’ would be blameworthy and thus sinful.

[31] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:205.

[32] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:202.

[33] Or equally: D if and only if x & y.

[34] This being the case from al-Ma’idah:49; al-Nisa’:65 and al-Nahl:89.

[35] Cf. `Ata’ Ibn Khalil, Taysir al-Wusul ila ’l-Usul, p.260.

[36] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:194-195.

[37] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:217.

[38] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:217.

[39] See al-Shirazi, al-Luma` fi Usul al-Fiqh, pp.84-85 and al-Ghazzali, al-Mustasfa, pp.471-473 and 488-494.

[40] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:219.

[41] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:229.

[42] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:229.

[43] Also referred to as muta`allim; see al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:224.

[44] See `Ata’ Ibn Khalil, Taysir al-Wusul ila ’l-Usul, p.275. Cf. al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:233-234.

[45] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:225-228. The actual basis on which to prefer one ruling over another is the strength of the evidence (quwwat al-dalil) but the muqallid cannot evaluate this hence other considerations are necessary as criteria.

[46] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:230.

[47] See al-Nabhani, al-Shakhsiyyah al-Islamiyyah, 1:231.

2 thoughts on “Imam Ibn al-Arabi_Ijtihad and Taqlid

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